بررسی شاخص‌های تنش خشکی در دو رقم کنجد (داراب 1 و دشتستان 2)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و

2 مربی پژوهش پایه 21، بخش تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اهواز، ایران

3 محقق صنایع غذایی، بخش تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی ، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

به منظور مطالعه و ارزیابی شاخص­های تنش خشکی بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد دانه، روغن، درصد روغن دانه و کارآیی مصرف آب دانه کنجد، آزمایشی به صـورت کرت‌های یک‌بار خرد شده در قالب بلـوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکــرار در سال زراعی 98-1397 در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی بهبهان اجرا گردید. فاکتور اصلی، مقدار آب در آبیاری قطره­ای نواری در چهار سطح 40، 60، 80 و 100 درصد نیاز آبی از شروع مرحله گلدهی و فاکتور فرعی رقم در دو سطح شامل ارقام داراب 1 و دشتستان2 در نظر گرفته شد. میانگین آب مصرفی در قالب تیمارهای 40، 60، 80، 100 درصد نیاز آبی و تیمار شاهد (آبیاری سطحی) به ­ترتیب برابر 0/35، 4/41، 8/47، 2/54 و 1/65 سانتی­متر آب بود. مقایسه میانگین کارایی مصرف آب در تیمارهای مختلف نشان داد که رقم داراب1 با 100 درصد نیاز آبی با کارایی مصرف آبی معادل 240/0 کیلوگرم بر متر مکعب، تیمار برتر بود. همچنین نتایج ضریب همبستگی پیرسون نشان داد، با افزایش ارتفاع بوته، تعداد دانه در کپسول، تعداد کپسول در بوته، وزن هزاردانه، حجم آب مصرفی، عملکرد روغن دانه و کارایی مصرف آب افزایش می­یابد. در نهایت، با توجه به کمتر بودن مقادیر شاخص­های معرف Stress Susceptibility Index و Tolerance Index در رقم داراب 1 نسبت به رقم دشتستان 2 و نیز بیش­تر بودن شاخص­های معرف Stress Tolerance Index، Mean Productivity، Geometric Mean Productivity، HM، Yield index و Yield stability index در رقم داراب 1 نسبت به رقم دشتستان 2 می­توان رقم داراب 1 را از نظر تنش خشکی به عنوان تیمار برتر معرفی نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study of Drought Stress Indices in Two Varieties of Sesame (Darab1 and Dashtestan2)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nader Salamati 1
  • Amirkhosro Danaie 2
  • Leila Behbahani 3
1 Research Assistant Professor of Agricultural Engineering Research Department, Khuzestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Ahvaz, Iran.
2 Member of Scientific Board, Seed and Plant lmprovement Department, Khuzestan. Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Researcher of food industry, Agricultural Engineering Research Department, Khuzestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to study and evaluate drought stress indices on yield, grain yield components, oil yield, seed oil percentage and sesame grain water use efficiency, a field study was carried out as split plots in randomized completely block design with three replications in 2018-2019 in Behbahan Agricultural Research Station. The main factor was the amount of irrigation water at four levels (40, 60, 80 and 100% of crop water requirement) that was applied by drip irrigation system since the beginning of flowering stage and the sub factor was sesame varieties including Darab1 and Dashtestan2 cultivars. The average applied water in 40, 60, 80 and 100% of crop water requirement treatments and also in control treatment (surface irrigation) were measured to be 350, 414, 478, 542 and 651 mm, respectively. The comparison of average water use efficiencies in different treatments showed a high value (0.240 kg/m3 of sesame seeds) for Darab1 cultivar with 100% crop water requirement, identifying as superior treatment. Also, the results of Pearson correlation coefficient showed by increasing plant height, number of seed in capsule, number of capsule per plant, 1000-seed weight, volume of applied water, the seed oil yield and water use efficiency increase. Finally, due to lower values of SSI and TOL indices and higher values of STI, MP and GMP indices in Darab1 variety compared to Dashtestan2 variety, Darab1 variety could be introduced as superior treatment in term of drought stress.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • 1000-grain weight
  • Water use efficiency
  • Variety
  • Evapotranspiration
Abbasali, M., Gholipouri, A., Tobeh, A., Khoshkholgh Sima, N. A and  Ghalebi, S.( 2017) Identification of drought tolerant genotypes in the Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Collection of National Plant Gene Bank of Iran. Iranian Journal of  Field Crop Science. 48 (1): 275-289. (In Farsi)

Allen, R.G., Pereira, L.S., Raes, D. and Smith, M. (1998) Crop evapotranspiration: Guidelines for computing crop water requirements. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 56, Rome, Italy.

Afshari, F., P. Golkar, and Gh. Mohammadinejad. (2014) Evaluation of drought tolerance in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) genotype at different growth stages. Arid Biom Scientific and Research Journal. 4(2):90-94.

Aien, A. (2013) Effect of Eliminating of Irrigation at Different Growth Stages on Seed Yield and Some Agronomic Traits of Two Sesame Genotypes. Journal of Planting and Seed. 2, 29 (1): 67-79. (In Farsi)

Amani, M., P. Golkar and Mohammadi-Nejad, G. (2012) Evaluation of drought tolerance in different  genotypes of sesame (Sesame indicum L.). International Journal of Recent Scientific Research, 3(4): 226-230.

Askari, A., Zabet M, Ghaderi, M Gh., amadzadeh, A. R.  and  Shorvazdi, S. (2016) Choose the Most Important Traits Affecting on Yield of SOME SESAME Genotypes (Sesamum indicum L.) in Normal and Stress Conditions. Journal of Crop Breeding, 8(18): 78-87. (In Farsi)

Bot, A.J., Nachtergaele, F.O. and Young, A. (2000)Land resource potential and constraints at regional and country levels. World Soil Resources Reports 90. Land and Water Development Division, Food, Agric. Organ, Rome

Boureima, S., Diouf, M., Amoukou, A.I. and Van Damme, P. (2012) Screening for ources of tolerance  to drought in sesame induced mutants: Assessment of indirect selection criteria for seed yield. International Journal of Pure and Applied Biosience, 43 (1): 39-49.

Dilip, K., Ajumdar, M. and Roy, S. (1991). Response of summer sesame (Sesamum indicum) to irrigation, row spacing and plant population. Journal Indian Agronomy, 37: 758-762.

Eskandari, H., ZehtabSalmasi, S. and Ghasemi-Golozani, K. (2010) Evaluation of water use efficiency and grain yield of sesame cultivars as a second crop under different irrigation regimes. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture Science, 2(20): 39-51 (In Farsi).

Food and Agriculture Organization. (2000). From http://www.fao.org/3/T0234E/T0234E03.htm

Golestani, M. and Pakniyat, H. (2007). Evaluation of drought tolerance indices in sesame lines. JWSS Isfahan University of Technology, 11(41), 141-150. (in Farsi)

Hassanzadeh, M., Ebadi, M., Panahyan-e-eKivi, SH., Jamaati-e-Somarin, Saeidi, M. and Gholipouri, A. (2009) Investigation of water stress on yield and yield components of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Research Journal of Environmental Science. 3(2): 239-244.

Khani, M.R., Heidari Sharifabad, H., Madani, H., Noor Mohamadi, G.H. and Darvish, F.  (2007) Selection for tolerance to drought in sesame genotype. The new findings Agriculture, (In Farsi)

Lotfi, P., Mohammadi-Nejad, Gh. and Golkar, P. (2012) Evaluation of drought tolerance in different genotypes of the Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Journal of Crop Science. . 5 (7): 1-14. (In Farsi)

Molaee, P., Ebadi, A., Namvar, A. and Bejandi, T. K. (2012) Water relation, solute accumulation and cell membrane injury in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) cultivars subjected to water stress. Annals of Biological Research, 3(4), 1833-1838.

Poor-Esmaeil, H. A., Fanaei, H. and Saberi, M. H. (2014). Evaluation of drought tolerant cultivars and lines of sesame using stress tolerance indices. Scientific Journal of Crop Science, 3(6), 66-70.

Shahrabi, B. Farahmandfar, E., Hassanlo, T., Shirani Rad, A.H. and S.A. Tabatabaee. 2013. Evaluation of drought tolerance in rapeseed varieties based on physiological and agronomical characteristics at Yazd region. Journal of Crop production. 6 (4): 97-77. (In Farsi)

Shabani, Z Nurizadan, H. R., Jamali, F. and Bayat, F. (2015) Evaluation of the relationship between morphological traits and yield in different sesame cultivars. Second International Conference on Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment and Medicinal Plants. 29 February 2015. Iranian Agricultural and Natural Resources Engineering Association in association with the Third Millennium Institute. Tehran. (In Farsi)

Sakila, M.S., Ibrahim, M., Kalamani, A. and Backiyarani, M. (2000) Correlation studies in sesame (sesamum indicum L.). Sesame and Sofflower Newsletter, 15: 26-28.

Sio-Semardeh, A., Ahmadi, A., Poostini, K. and Mohammadi, V. (2006) Evaluation of drought resistance indices under various environmental conditions. Field Crops Res., 98: 222-229.

Vamerali, T., Saccomani, M., Bons, S., Mosca, G., Guarise, M. and Ganis, M. (2003)A  comparison of root. characteristics in relation to nutrient and water stress in two maize hybrids. Plant Soil. 255: 157-167.

Yari, M. And Saidi, Q. (2016) Master's Thesis. Government - Ministry of Science, Research, Technology - Isfahan University of Technology - Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources. (In Farsi)