اثر مالچ‌ بر تغییرات رطوبت، دما و شار گرمایی خاک‌‌ در حضور سطح ایستابی کم عمق

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه مهندسی محیط زیست، دانشکده مهندسی عمران، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

چکیده

یکی از اهداف اصلی بخش کشاورزی در مناطق خشک و نیمه­خشک، بهبود بهره­وری از آب است. مالچ­پاشی یکی از مهمترین اقدامات زراعی در حفظ رطوبت و اصلاح محیط فیزیکی خاک است. هدف از انجام این پژوهش، بررسی اثر مالچ (کاه و کلش) بر تغییرات رطوبت و حرارت در دو خاک با بافت­های شنی و لومی با سطح ایستابی ثابت 60 سانتی­متر در مقیاس لایسی­متر بوده است. بدین منظور آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با سه فاکتور (مالچ، بافت و عمق خاک) انجام شد. مقدار رطوبت و دمای خاک در عمق­های مختلف 5، 10، 20، 30 و 50 سانتی­متر در طول90 روز، اندازه­گیری شدند. همچنین شار حرارتی خاک در طی بازه زمانی مورد­نظر، محاسبه شد. نتایج نشان داد که اثر پوشش مالچ بر توزیع رطوبت و حرارت در هر دو خاک در سطح یک درصد معنی­دار است، به­طوری­که مالچ منجر به ذخیره 25-20 درصدی رطوبت در لایه­ سطحی (5 سانتی­متری) خاک گردید. دلیل افزایش رطوبت این است که پوشش مالچ باعث تعدیل دما در نیمرخ خاک و کاهش تبخیر از سطح خاک می­شود. بعلاوه، اثر متقابل مالچ و بافت خاک بر دمای نیمرخ خاک تاثیری چشمگیر داشت (p<0.01). دامنه تغییرات روزانه دما در خاک لومی در حضور و بدون حضور مالچ، 11 و 5/17 درجه سلسیوس و در خاک شنی 14 و 5/18 درجه سانتی­گراد در لایه سطحی بود. نتایج همچنین نشان داد که مقدار کل شار حرارتی در لایه 10-5 سانتی­متری سطحی در خاک لومی دارای پوشش مالچ در حدود 40 درصد کمتر از شار حرارتی در خاک لخت بوده است که احتمالا به­دلیل سایه­اندازی پوشش مالچ و تغییر بیلان انرژی روی سطح خاک در طول روز بوده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Mulch on Soil Moisture, Temperature and Heat Flux Variation in the Presence of Shallow Groundwater

نویسندگان [English]

  • ashkan yusefi 1
  • Ahmad Farrokhian Firouzi 2
  • Milad Aminzadeh 3
1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Soil Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of soil science, Faculty of Agriculture , Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Environmental Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Improving water efficiency in arid and semi-arid regions is an ongoing goal in agricultural production. Mulching is one of the important agronomic practices in conserving and modifying the soil physical environment. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of mulch cover on soil temperature and water content in two sandy and loamy soil textures in the presence of shallow groundwater (60 cm). A factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three factors (mulch, depth and soil texture). For this purpose, soil moisture content and temperature at different depths of 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 cm were measured over 90 days. Soil heat flux was also calculated in this period. The results showed that the effect of mulch cover on soil moisture and temperature distribution in both soils was significant at 1% level with retaining a moisture content of 20-25% in surface layer (5 cm). These could be attributed to the role of mulch cover on shaping temperature equilibrium in soil profiles and reduction of surface evaporation. The interaction between the mulch and soil texture on soil temperature profile was also remarkable (p<0.01). Daily temperature fluctuations in the surface layer of loamy soil with and without mulch cover were measured 11 and 17.5 °C, and in the sandy soil, 14 and 18.5°C, respectively. Total heat flux in the 5-10 cm layer of loamy soil with mulch was approximately 40% less in comparison with the bare soil highlighting the effect of mulch cover on alternation of soil surface energy balance especially during daytime.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Soil temperature
  • Water content
  • Shallow groundwater
  • Mulch
  • bare soil

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