پاسخ ذرت به تنش شوری با استفاده از مدل‌های جذب آب در فصول مختلف

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

2 استاد، گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

4 استادیار، گروه بیابان‌زدایی، دانشکده کویرشناسی، دانشگاه سمنان، سمنان، ایران

چکیده

این تحقیق به‌منظور بررسی برهمکنش تنش شوری و تقاضای تبخیر بر جذب آب توسط گیاه ذرت انجام شد. آزمایش­ها در دو فصل بهار و پاییز در گلخانه به‌صورت طرح کاملاً تصادفی با 4 تکرار در سال 1396 انجام شدند. جذب آب ذرت به‌صورت روزانه تحت مکش 100 سانتی­متر در سطوح شوری 0، 7/1، 36/3، 33/6 و 35/8 دسی­زیمنس بر متر اندازه­گیری شد. قابلیت هدایت الکتریکی در گلدان­ها بعد از شروع اعمال تیمار ثابت نگه داشته شد. حد آستانه شوری بر اساس شوری آب آبیاری برای فصل بهار 52/0 و برای فصل پاییز 48/1 دسی­زیمنس بدست آمد که نشان‌دهنده حساسیت بیشتر ذرت به تنش شوری تحت شرایط تقاضای تبخیر بالا نسبت به تقاضای تبخیر پایین می­باشد. تنش شوری اعمال­شده به‌طور معنی­دار جذب آب و عملکرد گیاه را در هر دو فصل بهار و پاییز تحت تأثیر قرار داد. مقادیر عملکرد و جذب آب برآورد شده با استفاده از توابع کاهش نشان داد که مدل نمایی ونگنوختن-هافمن دقت بالاتری از مدل خطی ماس-هافمن برای عملکرد داشت درحالی‌که صحت مدل خطی بیش­تر از مدل نمایی برای جذب آب به‌ویژه در فصل پاییز بود. به‌طور کلی نتیجه گرفته شد، پاسخ گیاه به تنش شوری در شرایط تقاضای تبخیر متفاوت یکسان نیست.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Maize Response to Salinity Stress Using Water Uptake Models in Different Seasons

نویسندگان [English]

  • abouzar bazrafshan 1
  • Mahdi Shorafa 2
  • Mohammad Hossein Mohammadi 3
  • Ali Asghar Zolfaghari 4
1 Ph.D student, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, College of Agricultural and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, College of Agricultural and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
3 Associate professor, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, College of Agricultural and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
4 Assistant professor, Department of Desertification, Faculty of Desert Science, University of Semnan, Semnan, Iran
چکیده [English]

This study was performed to investigate the effect of salinity stress and evaporative demand on water uptake by maize (Zea Mays L.). For two seasons, greenhouse experiments were conducted in pots in a completely randomized design with 4 replicates in 2017. Water uptake by maize was measured daily under constant matric suction of 100 cm at different salinity levels (0, 1.7, 3.36, 6.33 and 8.35 dS/m). The electrical conductivity in pots was kept constant after the treatment initiations. The salinity threshold level was determined to be 0.52 for spring season and 1.48 dS/m for autumn season based on salinity of irrigation water which implies more sensivity of maize to salinity stress under high evaporative demand as compared to low evaporative demand conditions. The imposed salinity stress significantly affected water uptake and yield in both spring and autumn seasons. The estimated yield and water uptake values using reduction functions indicated that the exponential model of van Genuchten-Hoffman had more accuracy than the linear model of Maas-Hoffman for yield, while the accuracy of linear model was more than the exponential model for water uptake, especially in autumn season. It is concluded that the plant response to salinity stress is not the same under different evaporative demand conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Water use
  • yield
  • reduction functions
  • vapor-pressure deficit
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