اثر روش‌های خاک‌ورزی بر خصوصیات فیزیکی خاک و بهره‌وری آب ارقام گندم در تناوب گندم-ذرت

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیارپژوهش بخش تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی صفی آباد، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، دزفول، ایران

2 استادیار پژوهش بخش تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی صفی آباد، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، دزفول، ایران

چکیده

این تحقیق برگرفته از نتایج طرحی است که با هدف بررسی اثر کاشت مستقیم ارقام گندم در بقایای ذرت، بر عملکرد و بهره‌وری آب طی دو سال زراعی 96-95 و 97-96 انجام شده است. برای این منظور، آزمایشی به صورت کرت‌های نواری خرد شده در قالب بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در اراضی مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی صفی‌آباد دزفول اجرا شد. کرت اصلی شامل روش‌های بی‌خاک‌ورزی (NT)، کم‌خاک‌ورزی (MT) و خاک‌ورزی مرسوم (CT) و کرت فرعی شامل ارقام گندم چمران2، مهرگان، شوش، فلات و داراب2 بودند. نتایج نشان داد با وجود اینکه اختلاف معنی‌داری بین نتایج روش‌های خاک‌ورزی مشاهده نشد، میانگین عملکرد ارقام در روش NT (Kg ha-1 4830) بیش از روش MT (Kgha-1 4610) و CT (Kgha-1 4680) بود. از طرفی میانگین عملکرد و بهره وری آب در ارقام مهرگان و چمران2 به ترتیب برابر Kg ha-1 5000 و kg m-3 25/1 در یک سطح و بالاتر از سه رقم دیگر حاصل شد. اگر‌چه در این تحقیق، کاهش تردد ماشین‌های خاک‌ورزی و کاشت از 6 تا 7 نوبت در روش‌های MT و CT به 2 نوبت (سم‌پاشی و کاشت همزمان کود و بذر در بقایای ذرت دانه‌ای) در روش NT تاثیر معنی‌داری در شاخص مخروطی و جرم مخصوص ظاهری خاک نداشت، کربن آلی خاک نسبت به دو روش دیگر خاک‌ورزی 16 تا 32 درصد افزایش یافت. ازاین‌رو استفاده از ارقام جدید و کاشت مستقیم در بقایای ذرت بدون کاهش عملکرد و بهبود 3 تا 4 درصدی بهره‌وری آب در مناطق مشابه توصیه می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Tillage Methods on Soil Physical Properties and Water Productivity of Wheat Cultivars in Wheat-Corn Rotation

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Khorramian 1
  • Seyed reza Ashraeizadeh 2
1 Assistant Professor Agricultural Engineering Research Department. Safiabad Agricultural Research and Education and Natural Resources Center, AREEO, Dezful, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor Agricultural Engineering Research Department. Safiabad Agricultural Research and Education and Natural Resources Center, AREEO, Dezful, Iran.
چکیده [English]

This research is based on the results of a study that was carried out to evaluate the effect of direct drilling of wheat in maize residues on yield and water productivity (WP) for two years of 2016 and 2017. For this purpose, a field experiment was conducted as split plots with a randomized complete block design with three replications in Safiabad Agricultural Research Center located in Dezful, north of Khuzestan province. The main plot treatments were including: No-Tillage (NT), Minimum Tillage (MT), and Conventional Tillage (CT) and sub plots treatments were Chamran 2, Mehregan, Shoosh, Falat, and Darab 2 cultivars. The results showed although there was no significant difference between tillage methods, but the average yield of cultivars in the NT (4830 kg ha-1) was more than the MT (4610 kg ha-1) and CT (4680 kg ha-1). On the other hand, the average yield and WP of both Mehregan and Chamran2 cultivars (5000 kg ha-1 and 1.25 kg m-3,respectively) were more than the other cultivars. Although in this research, reducing passes of tillage and planting machinery from 6 to 7 times in MT and CT to only 2 times in NT method (chemigation and planting in maize residues) did not have a significant effect on the soil cone index and soil bulk density, the soil organic carbon increased 16 to 32 percent in NT method in comparison to other tillage methods. Therefore, the use of new wheat cultivars under direct drill planting conditions in maize residues without yield reduction and 3-4 percent WP improvement is recommended in similar areas.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Wheat cultivars
  • Water Productivity
  • No - tillage
  • Soil bulk density
  • Cone index
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