آنتیموان و اثرات آن بر اجزای محیط‎زیست

نوع مقاله: یادداشت تحقیقاتی

نویسندگان

گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران.

چکیده

امروزه یکی از مسائل محیط‎زیستی، آلوده شدن منابع خاک، آب و گیاه با فلزات سنگین می‎باشد. یکی از فلزات سنگین خطرناک آنتیموان (Sb) است که با تجمع در بافت‎های گیاهی و حیوانی و انتقال آن‎ها به زنجیره غذایی باعث به مخاطره افتادن سلامت انسان می‎شود. حد بحرانی Sb در آب آشامیدنی به‎ترتیب 5 و 6 میکروگرم بر لیتر توسط اتحادیه اروپا و آمریکا تعیین شده و همین‎طور سازمان بهداشت جهانی این حد را در خاک 35 میلی‎گرم بر کیلوگرم اعلام کرده است. قرارگرفتن در معرض غلظت‎های مختلف Sb می‎تواند باعث انواع بیماری‎ها، سرطان‎ها و نارسایی‎های ژنتیکی در انسان شود. علاوه بر این، موجب التهاب قرنیه، آماس پوست، ورم ملتحمه و ورم معده نیز می‎شود. غلظت‎های بیش‎تر از حد بحرانی Sb در خاک می‎تواند موجب تنش اکسیداتیو شده و زیست‎توده گیاهی، جوانه‎زنی، طول ریشه، ارتفاع گیاه و میزان فتوسنتز گیاهان را کاهش دهد. این عنصر تأثیر منفی بر جامعه میکروبی و آنزیم‎های خاک داشته و میزان مهارکنندگی جمعیت‎های میکروبی خاک به‎صورت باکتری‎ها > قارچ‎ها > اکتینومیست‎ها > گزارش شده است. به‎طور کلی جذب Sb توسط گیاهان در خاک‎های اسیدی کم‎تر از خاک‎های آهکی است و راهکارهای کاهش جذب Sb در خاک‎های آهکی استفاده از کودهای فسفاته (اثر آنتاگونیستی فسفر با Sb)، کودهای حاوی گوگرد و کاربرد مواد آلی است. با توجه به وجود دو سازند آتشفشانی در کشور (سازند ارومیه-دختر و شرق کشور) که حاوی انواع فلزات سنگین از جمله Sb می‎باشند و افزایش بهره‎برداری و تعداد معادن Sb در استان‎های آذربایجان غربی، سیستان و بلوچستان، کردستان و خراسان رضوی تعیین میزان آلودگی منابع آب و خاک این استان‎ها و همین‎طور استان‎های واقع بر روی دو سازند فوق الذکر لازم و ضروری به‎نظر می‎رسد. هم‎چنین در استان‎های آذربایجان غربی و سیستان و بلوچستان تصفیه آب‎های آشامیدنی از لحاظ آلودگی به Sb باید در برنامه کار دولت قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Antimony and Its Effects on the Components of Environment

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nader Khadem Moghadam Igdelou
  • Ahmad Golchin
  • Tohid Rouhi Kelarlou
department of soil science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Nowadays, one of the environmental issues is pollution of soil, water and plants resources with heavy metals. Antimony (Sb) is one of the most dangerous heavy metals, which by accumulation in the plant and animal tissues and transmission to the food chain, endangers human health. The critical limit for Sb in drinking water has been determined by the European Union and the United States to be 5 and 6 μg/l, respectively. The World Health Organization has reported this limit for the soil, 35 mg/kg. Exposure to Sb with various concentrations can cause a variety of diseases, cancers and genetic defects in humans. In addition, it causes keratitis, dermatitis, conjunctivitis, and gastritis. Concentrations above the critical Sb level in the soil can cause oxidative stress and reduce plant biomass, germination, root length, plant height, and plant photosynthesis. This element has a negative effect on microbial communities and soil enzymes and the rate of inhibition of soil microbial populations has been reported as bacteria> fungi> actinomyces. In general, the absorption of Sb by plants in acid soils is lower than calcareous soils and solutions for reducing Sb absorption in calcareous soils are to use phosphate fertilizers (antagonistic effect of phosphorus with Sb), fertilizers containing sulfur and the use of organic materials. Considering the existence of two volcanic formations in the country (Urmia-Dokhtar and East of the country formation) that contain various types of heavy metals, including Sb and increasing the exploitation and the number of Sb mines in the provinces of West Azerbaijan, Sistan and Baluchestan, Kurdistan, and Khorasan Razavi, it seems necessary determining the pollution levels of the water and soil resources of these provinces, as well as the provinces located on the two above-mentioned formations. Also, in the provinces of West Azerbaijan and Sistan and Baluchestan, the treatment of drinking water in terms of contamination with Sb should be on the government's agenda.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • microorganisms
  • Mineral
  • Pollution
  • Urmia-Dokhtar formation
  • water and soil resources

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Nowadays, one of the environmental issues is pollution of soil, water and plants resources with heavy metals. Antimony (Sb) is one of the most dangerous heavy metals, which by accumulation in the plant and animal tissues and transmission to the food chain, endangers human health. The critical limit for Sb in drinking water has been determined by the European Union and the United States to be 5 and 6 μg/l, respectively. The World Health Organization has reported this limit for the soil, 35 mg/kg. Exposure to Sb with various concentrations can cause a variety of diseases, cancers and genetic defects in humans. In addition, it causes keratitis, dermatitis, conjunctivitis, and gastritis. Concentrations above the critical Sb level in the soil can cause oxidative stress and reduce plant biomass, germination, root length, plant height, and plant photosynthesis. This element has a negative effect on microbial communities and soil enzymes and the rate of inhibition of soil microbial populations has been reported as bacteria> fungi> actinomyces. In general, the absorption of Sb by plants in acid soils is lower than calcareous soils and solutions for reducing Sb absorption in calcareous soils are to use phosphate fertilizers (antagonistic effect of phosphorus with Sb), fertilizers containing sulfur and the use of organic materials. Considering the existence of two volcanic formations in the country (Urmia-Dokhtar and East of the country formation) that contain various types of heavy metals, including Sb and increasing the exploitation and the number of Sb mines in the provinces of West Azerbaijan, Sistan and Baluchestan, Kurdistan, and Khorasan Razavi, it seems necessary determining the pollution levels of the water and soil resources of these provinces, as well as the provinces located on the two above-mentioned formations. Also, in the provinces of West Azerbaijan and Sistan and Baluchestan, the treatment of drinking water in terms of contamination with Sb should be on the government's agenda.