Abdollahy, M., Raissi, A. and Naderi, H. (2007). Beneficiation of Lakhshak antimony ore using flotation method. Geosciences, 17(65), 60-69. (In Farsi)
Ainsworth, N., Cooke, J. A. and Johnson, M. S. (1990). Distribution of antimony in contaminated grassland: 1—vegetation and soils. Environmental Pollution, 65(1), 65–77.
Alloway, B. J. (2012). Heavy metals in soils: trace metals and metalloids in soils and their bioavailability (Vol. 22). Netherlands: Springer Science and Business Media.
Álvarez-Ayuso, E., Otones, V., Murciego, A., García-Sánchez, A. and Santa Regina, I. (2012). Antimony, arsenic and lead distribution in soils and plants of an agricultural area impacted by former mining activities. Science of the Total Environment, 439, 35–43.
An, Y. J. and Kim, M. (2009). Effect of antimony on the microbial growth and the activities of soil enzymes. Chemosphere, 74(5), 654–659.
An, Y. J. and Yang, C. Y. (2009). Fridericia peregrinabunda (Enchytraeidae) as a new test species for soil toxicity assessment. Chemosphere, 77(3), 325-329.
Anderson, C. G. (2012). The metallurgy of antimony. Chemie Der Erde, 72(SUPPL.4), 3–8.
Anonymous. (2019). Ministry of Industry, Mine & Trade. Retrieved May 22, 2019, from http://Sb.mimt.gov.ir/.
Artetxe, U., García-Plazaola, J. I., Hernández, A. and Becerril, J. M. (2002). Low light grown duckweed plants are more protected against the toxicity induced by Zn and Cd. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 40(10), 859–863.
Asante-Duah, K. (2017). Public Health Risk Assessment for Human Exposure to Chemicals. (J. Trevors, Ed.) (2nd ed., Vol. 27). Netherlands: Springer.
Atashi, H., Shahemabadi, M. S. and Salek, S. (2010). Determination of antimony in Zahedan drinking water. Asian Journal of Chemistry, 22(6), 4426-4430.
Awe, S. A. (2013). Antimony recovery from complex copper concentrates through hydro-and electrometallurgical processes. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Luleå tekniska, Sweden.
Ayangbenro, A. S. and Babalola, O. O. (2017). A new strategy for heavy metal polluted environments: A review of microbial biosorbents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(1).
Baek, Y. W., Lee, W. M., Jeong, S. W. and An, Y. J. (2014). Ecological effects of soil antimony on the crop plant growth and earthworm activity. Environmental Earth sciences, 71(2), 895-900.
Bahrami, S. and Raese, E. (2015). The impact of darab city landfill on groundwater contamination. Geosciences, 24(95), 151-156. (In Farsi)
Baroni, F., Boscagli, A., Protano, G. and Riccobono, F. (2000). Antimony accumulation in Achillea ageratum, Plantago lanceolata and Silene vulgaris growing in an old Sb-mining area. Environmental Pollution, 109(2), 347–352.
Belzile, N., Chen, Y. W. and Filella, M. (2011). Human exposure to antimony: I. Sources and intake. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 41(14), 1309-1373.
Belzile, N., Chen, Y.-W. and Wang, Z. (2001). Oxidation of antimony (III) by amorphous iron and manganese oxyhydroxides. Chemical Geology, 174(4), 379–387.
Bradley, W. R. and Fredrick, W. G. (1941). The Toxicity of Antimony:—Animal Studies—. American Industrial Hygiene Association Quarterly, 2(2), 15–22.
Buschmann, J. and Sigg, L. (2004). Antimony (III) binding to humic substances: influence of pH and type of humic acid. Environmental Science and Technology, 38(17), 4535–4541.
Cen, R. G., Li, B., Wei, S. Y., Mo, X. J. and Zhang, L. (2007). Investigation on correlation between chronic antimony poisoning and liver fibrosis. Labeled Immunoass Clin Med, 14(2), 106–107.
Chen, J., Liu, G., Kang, Y., Wu, B., Sun, R., Zhou, C. and Wu, D. (2013). Atmospheric emissions of F, As, Se, Hg, and Sb from coal-fired power and heat generation in China. Chemosphere, 90(6), 1925-1932.
Coelho, D. R., Miranda, E. S. and Paumgartten, F. J. R. (2014). Tissue distribution of residual antimony in rats treated with multiple doses of meglumine antimoniate. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 109(4), 420-427.
Cooper, R. and Harrison, A. (2009). The exposure to and health effects of antimony. Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 13(1), 3.
Czégény, Z., Jakab, E., Blazsó, M., Bhaskar, T. and Sakata, Y. (2012). Thermal decomposition of polymer mixtures of PVC, PET and ABS containing brominated flame retardant: Formation of chlorinated and brominated organic compounds. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 96, 69-77.
Das, R., Khezri, B., Srivastava, B., Datta, S., Sikdar, P. K., Webster, R. D. and Wang, X. (2015). Trace element composition of PM2.5 and PM10 from Kolkata–a heavily polluted Indian metropolis. Atmospheric Pollution Research, 6(5), 742-750.
Davodifard, M., Forgani Tehrani, G. and Esmaeli, H. (2012). Distribution of lead, zinc, antimony, cadmium and arsenic in the mining area of Irankouh. In: 30th Symposium of Geosciences, 20-22 Feb., Geological Survey & Mineral Exploration of Iran, Tehran, Iran. (In Farsi)
Dupont, D., Arnout, S., Jones, P. T. and Binnemans, K. (2016). Antimony recovery from end-of-life products and industrial process residues: a critical review. Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, 2(1), 79-103.
El Shanawany, S., Foda, N., Hashad, D. I., Salama, N. and Sobh, Z. (2017). The potential DNA toxic changes among workers exposed to antimony trioxide. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24(13), 12455-12461.
Ettler, V., Mihaljevič, M., Šebek, O. and Nechutný, Z. (2007). Antimony availability in highly polluted soils and sediments–a comparison of single extractions. Chemosphere, 68(3), 455–463.
Falsolyman, M. and Hajipour, M. (2015). The spatial-temporal analysis of anthropogenic hazards management of mines in Iran. Journal of Spatial Analysis of Environmental Risks, 2(2), 33-51. (In Farsi)
Fan, J. and Wang, Y. (2016). Atmospheric Emissions of As, Sb, and Se from Coal Combustion in Shandong Province, 2005-2014. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 25(6).
Filella, M., Belzile, N. and Chen, Y.-W. (2002). Antimony in the environment: a review focused on natural waters: I. Occurrence. Earth-Science Reviews, 57(1–2), 125–176.
Filella, M., Belzile, N. and Lett, M. C. (2007). Antimony in the environment: A review focused on natural waters. III. Microbiota relevant interactions. Earth-Science Reviews, 80(3–4), 195–217.
Flynn, H. C., Meharg, A. A., Bowyer, P. K. and Paton, G. I. (2003). Antimony bioavailability in mine soils. Environmental Pollution, 124(1), 93–100.
Fort, M., Grimalt, J. O., Querol, X., Casas, M. and Sunyer, J. (2016). Evaluation of atmospheric inputs as possible sources of antimony in pregnant women from urban areas. Science of the Total Environment, 544, 391-399.
Fu, Z., Wu, F., Mo, C., Liu, B., Zhu, J., Deng, Q., Liao, H. and Zhang, Y. (2011). Bioaccumulation of antimony, arsenic, and mercury in the vicinities of a large antimony mine, China. Microchemical Journal, 97(1), 12-19.
Gebel, T. (1997). Arsenic and antimony: comparative approach on mechanistic toxicology. Chemico-Biological Interactions, 107(3), 131-144.
Ghasemzadeh, F. and malekzadeh shafaroudi, A. (2011). Environmental effect of arsenic in Cheshmeh-Zard area, Southwest of Nyshabour, Khorasan Razavi Province. Iranian Journal of Crystallography and Mineralogy, 19(3), 454-456. (In Farsi)
Ghassemzadeh, F., Hosein, M. and Geoffrey, M. (2006). Arsenic and Antimony in Drinking Water in Khohsorkh Area, Northeast Iran Possible Risks for the Public Health. Journal of Applied Sciences, 6, 2705-2714.
Gulz, P. A., Gupta, S.-K. and Schulin, R. (2005). Arsenic accumulation of common plants from contaminated soils. Plant and Soil, 272(1–2), 337–347.
Hamamura, N., Fukushima, K. and Itai, T. (2013). Identification of antimony-and arsenic-oxidizing bacteria associated with antimony mine tailing. Microbes and Environments, ME12217.
Hartmann, L. M., Craig, P. J. and Jenkins, R. O. (2003). Influence of arsenic on antimony methylation by the aerobic yeast Cryptococcus humicolus. Archives of Microbiology, 180(5), 347–352.
Hatefi, R., Shahsavri, A. A., Khodaei, K. and Asadian, F. (2018). Monitoring and mapping of arsenic and antimony in sediments in the river basin Sarough. In: First International Congress on Water, Soil and Environmental Sciences, 2 Mar., Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran, pp. 1-15. (In Farsi)
He, M. (2007). Distribution and phytoavailability of antimony at an antimony mining and smelting area, Hunan, China. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 29(3), 209–219.
He, M. and Yang, J. (1999). Effects of different forms of antimony on rice during the period of germination and growth and antimony concentration in rice tissue. Science of the Total Environment, 243, 149–155.
He, M., Wang, N., Long, X., Zhang, C., Ma, C., Zhong, Q., Wang, A., Wang, Y., Pervaiz, A. and Shan, J. (2019). Antimony speciation in the environment: Recent advances in understanding the biogeochemical processes and ecological effects. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 75, 14-39.
Iranpour Mobarakeh, A., Mazaheri, S. A. and Mahmudi Gharaie, M. H. (2012). Hydrogeochemistry of water resources of southwest of Mashhad and investigation of the source of contamination with antimony. In: 30th Symposium of Geosciences, 20-22 Feb., Geological Survey & Mineral Exploration of Iran, Tehran, Iran. (In Farsi)
Jafarirad, A. (2001). The study of antimony reserves in iran and the world. Geological Survey & Mineral Explorations of Iran.
Jamali Hajiani, N., Ghaderian, S. M. and Karimi, N. (2016). Investigation of uptake, accumulation and tolerance of antimony in Tanacetum polycephalum. Journal of Plant Researches, 29(3), 495-505. (In Farsi)
Jenkins, R. O., Craig, P. J., Goessler, W., Miller, D., Ostah, N. and Irgolic, K. J. (1998). Biomethylation of inorganic antimony compounds by an aerobic fungus: Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Environmental science & Technology, 32(7), 882-885.
Johnson, C. A., Moench, H., Wersin, P., Kugler, P. and Wenger, C. (2005). Solubility of antimony and other elements in samples taken from shooting ranges. Journal of Environmental Quality, 34(1), 248–254.
Kabata-Pendias, A. (2010). Trace Elements in Soils and Plants (Fourth ed.). New York, United States: Tylor and Francis Inc.
Kabata-Pendias, A. and Mukherjee, A. B. (2007). Trace elements from soil to human. springer (1st ed.). Verlag Berlin Heidelberg: Springer.
Khakrah, F., Lotfi, M. and Moghadasi, S. J. (2010). Geological,mineralogical,petrogeraphy and alternation investigation at Kashmar Chalpou-Kalate Chubak antimony deposite. Journal of Eviromental Geology, 4(11), 11-23. (In Farsi)
Khamr, Z., Mahmudi Gharaei, M. H., Makhdumi, A. and Sayareh, A. (2012). Determination of pollution indices in water resources of Zarmehr gold mine (Torbat Heydarieh). In: 31th Symposium of Geosciences, 1-2 Dec., Geological Survey & Mineral Exploration of Iran, Tehran, Iran. (In Farsi)
Khodaei, A. A. (2009). Assessment of environmental pollution caused by heavy metals in the area of Ahangaran-Malayer zinc and lead mine. M. Sc. dissertation, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan.
Kim, Y. H., Wyrzykowska-Ceradini, B., Touati, A., Krantz, Q. T., Dye, J. A., Linak, W. P., Gullett, B. and Gilmour, M. I. (2015). Characterization of size-fractionated airborne particles inside an electronic waste recycling facility and acute toxicity testing in mice. Environmental Science & Technology, 49(19), 11543-11550.
Klitzke, S. and Lang, F. (2009). Mobilization of soluble and dispersible lead, arsenic, and antimony in a polluted, organic-rich soil–effects of pH increase and counterion valency. Journal of Environmental Quality, 38(3), 933–939.
Lehr, C. R., Kashyap, D. R. and McDermott, T. R. (2007). New insights into microbial oxidation of antimony and arsenic. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 73(7), 2386–2389.
Leyva, A. G., Marrero, J., Smichowski, P. and Cicerone, D. (2001). Sorption of antimony onto hydroxyapatite. Environmental Science and Technology, 35(18), 3669–3675.
Li, J., Wang, Q., Oremland, R. S., Kulp, T. R., Rensing, C. and Wang, G. (2016). Microbial antimonybiogeochemistry: enzymes, regulation, and related metabolic pathways. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 82(18), 5482–5495.
Li, J., Wang, Q., Zhang, S., Qin, D. and Wang, G. (2013). Phylogenetic and genome analyses of antimony-oxidizing bacteria isolated from antimony mined soil. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 76, 76–80.
Lin, Q., Liu, E., Zhang, E., Nath, B., Shen, J., Yuan, H. and Wang, R. (2018). Reconstruction of atmospheric trace metals pollution in Southwest China using sediments from a large and deep alpine lake: historical trends, sources and sediment focusing. Science of the Total Environment, 613, 331-341.
Lintschinger, J., Michalke, B., Schulte-Hostede, S. and Schramel, P. (1998). Studies on speciation of antimony in soil contaminated by industrial activity. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 72(1), 11–25.
Luo, J., Bai, Y., Liang, J. and Qu, J. (2014). Metagenomic approach reveals variation of microbes with arsenic and antimony metabolism genes from highly contaminated soil. PLoS ONE, 9(10).
Maanijou, M. and Aliani, F. (2000). Antimony mineralization in relation to alvand granitoids (Hamedan). Iranian Journal of Crystallography and Mineralogy, 8(1), 57-70. (In Farsi)
Maciaszczyk-Dziubinska, E., Wawrzycka, D. and Wysocki, R. (2012). Arsenic and antimony transporters in eukaryotes. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 13(3), 3527–3548.
Mahmudy Gharaei, M., Taheri, M., Mehrzad, J. and Dadestan, A. (2013). Investigation of soil pollution to arsenic and antimony in Chalpo mineral area of North of kashmar. In: 1st Conference on Iranian Applied Geochemistry, 27-28 Aug., Damghan University, Damghan, Iran, pp. 291-296. (In Farsi)
Mahmudy Nikou, M., Fardoust, F., Moosivand, F. and Jafari, H. (2012). Evaluation of groundwater pollution in the Hafez Cheshmehzard mineral area to elements and heavy metals. In: 30th Symposium of Geosciences, 20-22 Feb., Geological Survey & Mineral Exploration of Iran, Tehran, Iran. (In Farsi)
Manzano, J. I., Lecerf-Schmidt, F., Lespinasse, M.-A., Di Pietro, A., Castanys, S., Boumendjel, A. and Gamarro, F. (2013). Identification of specific reversal agents for Leishmania ABCI4-mediated antimony resistance by flavonoid and trolox derivative screening. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 69(3), 664–672.
Marijić, V. F., Dragun, Z., Perić, M. S., Kepčija, R. M., Gulin, V., Velki, M., Ecimovic, S., Hackenberger, B. K. and Erk, M. (2016). Investigation of the soluble metals in tissue as biological response pattern to environmental pollutants (Gammarus fossarum example). Chemosphere, 154, 300-309.
Markert, B. (1996). Instrumental element and multi-element analysis of plant samples: methods and applications. Wiley.
Martinez, A. M. and Echeberria, J. (2016). Towards a better understanding of the reaction between metal powders and the solid lubricant Sb2S3 in a low-metallic brake pad at high temperature. Wear, 348, 27-42.
McCallum, R. I. (1999). Antimony in medical history: An account of the medical uses of antimony and its compounds since early times to the present. Pentland Press.
McCallum, R. I. (2005). Occupational exposure to antimony compounds. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 7(12), 1245–1250.
Mehrabi, B., Mehrabani, S., Rafiei, B. and Yaghoubi, B. (2015). Assessment of metal contamination in groundwater and soils in the Ahangaran mining district, west of Iran. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187(12), 1–23.
Mehrabi, B.,Tale Fazel E. and Nokhbatolfoghahai, A. (2011). Disseminated, veinlet and vein Pb-Zn, Cu and Sb polymetallic mineralization in the Galechah-Shurab mining district, Iranian East Magmatic Assemblage (IEMA). Annually Journal of Economic Geology, 3(1), 61-77. (In Farsi)
Merzaee, S. E., Zarasvandi, A. and Urang, M. (2014). The Geochemical Effects of Asmari Oil reservoirs on the Masjed Soleiman karstic water resources. Journal of Advanced Applied Geology, 5(18), 1-14. (In Farsi)
Moradi, R., Boomeri, M. and Bagheri, S. (2014).Petrography and geochemistry of intrusive rocks in the Shurchah antimony-bearing area, Southeast of Zahedan. Petrology, 5(18), 15-32. (In Farsi)
Moradi, R., Boomeri, M., Bagheri, S. and Zahedi, A. (2015). Physico-chemical conditions and controlling factors of mineralization, using mineralogy, paragenetic relations and fluid inclusions in the Shurchah Stibnite-Gold Deposit, Southeast of Zahedan. Iranian Journal of Crystallography and Mineralogy, 23(1), 121-134. (In Farsi)
Mousavi, A., Vamaghi, A. and Javani, R. (2015). Investigation of environmental contamination of poisonous elements As, Sb and Hg from dumping tailings gold mine Agh Darreh. In: International Conference on Sustainable Development, Strategies & Challenges, 24-26 Feb., Permanent Secretariat of the Conference International Conference on Sustainable Development, Strategies & Challenges, Tabriz, Iran, pp. 1-6. (In Farsi)
Mousavi, S. P., Asghar Mokhtari, M. A., Khosravi, Y., Rafiee, A. and Hoseinzade, R. (2018). Investigation of environmental pollution in stream sediments for heavy metals at Zarshuran- Aghdarreh area (North of Takab, Iran). Journal of Water and Soil Science, 22(2), 127-141. (In Farsi)
Multani, R. S., Feldmann, T. and Demopoulos, G. P. (2016). Antimony in the metallurgical industry: A review of its chemistry and environmental stabilization options. Hydrometallurgy, 164, 141–153.
Murciego, A. M., Sánchez, A. G., González, M. A. R., Gil, E. P., Gordillo, C. T., Fernández, J. C. and Triguero, T. B. (2007). Antimony distribution and mobility in topsoils and plants (Cytisus striatus, Cistus ladanifer and Dittrichia viscosa) from polluted Sb-mining areas in Extremadura (Spain). Environmental Pollution, 145(1), 15–21.
Naderi, M. R., Danesh-Shahraki, A. and Naderi, R. (2012). A review on phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated soils. Human & Environment, 13(23), 35-49. (In Farsi)
Nannoni, F. and Protano, G. (2016). Chemical and biological methods to evaluate the availability of heavy metals in soils of the Siena urban area (Italy). Science of the Total Environment, 568, 1-10.
Nannoni, F., Protano, G. and Riccobono, F. (2011). Uptake and bioaccumulation of heavy elements by two earthworm species from a smelter contaminated area in northern Kosovo. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 43(12), 2359-2367.
Neiva, A. M. R., Andráš, P. and Ramos, J. M. F. (2008). Antimony quartz and antimony–gold quartz veins from northern Portugal. Ore Geology Reviews, 34(4), 533–546.
Ngo, L. K., Pinch, B. M., Bennett, W. W., Teasdale, P. R. and Jolley, D. F. (2016). Assessing the uptake of arsenic and antimony from contaminated soil by radish (Raphanus sativus) using DGT and selective extractions. Environmental Pollution, 216, 104–114.
Nokhbatolfoghahai, A., Behzadi, M., Khakzad, A.and Bagherzadeh Yazdi, M.H. (2009). Geochemistry, mineralogy and genesis of antimony mineralization in Choopan area, South Khorasan. Journal of Geotechnical Gology (Applied Geology), 5(1), 76-86. (In Farsi)
Okkenhaug, G., Zhu, Y. G., Luo, L., Lei, M., Li, X. and Mulder, J. (2011). Distribution, speciation and availability of antimony (Sb) in soils and terrestrial plants from an active Sb mining area. Environmental Pollution, 159(10), 2427–2434.
Oorts, K., Smolders, E., Degryse, F., Buekers, J., Gascó, G., Cornelis, G. and Mertens, J. (2008). Solubility and toxicity of antimony trioxide (Sb2O3) in soil. Environmental Science and Technology, 42(12), 4378–4383.
Pagnanelli, F., Viggi, C. C. and Toro, L. (2010). Isolation and quantification of cadmium removal mechanisms in batch reactors inoculated by sulphate reducing bacteria: biosorption versus bioprecipitation. Bioresource Technology, 101(9), 2981–2987.
Pan, X., Zhang, D., Chen, X., Bao, A. and Li, L. (2011). Antimony accumulation, growth performance, antioxidant defense system and photosynthesis of Zea mays in response to antimony pollution in soil. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 215(1–4), 517–523.
Pardo, R., Herguedas, M., Barrado, E. and Vega, M. (2003). Biosorption of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc by inactive biomass of Pseudomonas putida. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 376(1), 26–32.
Pilarski, J., Waller, P. and Pickering, W. (1995). Sorption of antimony species by humic acid. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 84(1–2), 51–59.
Rahimsouri, Y., Yaghubpur, A. and Modabberi, S. (2011). Hydrogeochemistry and water quality of springs and drinking waters of villages in Aq-Darreh river watershed, NW Takab, West Azarbaijan. Geosciences, 21(82), 77-82. (In Farsi)
Rahimsouri, Y., Yaghubpur, A. and Modabberi, S. (2013). Geochemical distribution of arsenic , antimony and mercury in surface waters and bed sediments from Aq- Darreh river , Takab , Northwest Iran. Journal of Environmental Science and Water Resources, 2(April), 75–88.
Rascio, N. and Navari-Izzo, F. (2011). Heavy metal hyperaccumulating plants: How and why do they do it? And what makes them so interesting? Plant Science, 180(2), 169–181.
Roper, A. J., Williams, P. A. and Filella, M. (2012). Secondary antimony minerals: phases that control the dispersion of antimony in the supergene zone. Chemie Der Erde-Geochemistry, 72, 9–14.
Rovira, J., Nadal, M., Schuhmacher, M. and Domingo, J. L. (2017). Trace elements in skin-contact clothes and migration to artificial sweat: risk assessment of human dermal exposure. Textile Research Journal, 87(6), 726-738.
Saadat, S. and Shahabpour, J. (1997). An appraisal of mineralization antimony in Sirzar area (North East of Khorasan). Iranian Journal of Crystallography and Mineralogy, 5(1), 45-58. (In Farsi)
Sanderson, P., Naidu, R. and Bolan, N. (2014). Ecotoxicity of chemically stabilised metal (loid) s in shooting range soils. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 100, 201-208.
Sanderson, P., Naidu, R. and Bolan, N. (2015). Effectiveness of chemical amendments for stabilisation of lead and antimony in risk-based land management of soils of shooting ranges. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22(12), 8942-8956.
Selim, H. M. (2012). Competitive sorption and transport of heavy metals in soils and geological media. CRC Press.
Shangguan, Y. xian, Zhao, L., Qin, Y., Hou, H. and Zhang, N. (2016). Antimony release from contaminated mine soils and its migration in four typical soils using lysimeter experiments. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 133, 1–9.
Sharafi, H., Yagubpour, A. and Ghafuri, M. (2011). Investigation of environmental pollution of toxic heavy metals in groundwater of Zanjan plain. In: 15th Symposium of Geological Society of Iran, 14-15 Dec., Tarbiat Moalem University, Tehran, Iran, pp. 1-8. (In Farsi)
Sharifi, R., Moore, F. and Keshavarzi, B. (2016). Mobility and chemical fate of arsenic and antimony in water and sediments of Sarouq River catchment, Takab geothermal field, Northwest Iran. Journal of Environmental Management, 170, 136–144.
Shotyk, W. (1996). Natural and anthropogenic enrichments of As, Cu, Pb, Sb, and Zn in ombrotrophic versus minerotrophic peat bog profiles, Jura Mountains, Switzerland. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 90(3–4), 375–405.
Shotyk, W., Krachler, M. and Chen, B. (2006). Contamination of Canadian and European bottled waters with antimony from PET containers. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 8(2), 288–292.
Shrivas, K., Agrawal, K. and Harmukh, N. (2008). On-site spectrophotometric determination of antimony in water, soil and dust samples of Central India. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 155(1–2), 173–178.
Shtangeeva, I., Niemelä, M. and Perämäki, P. (2014). Effects of soil amendments on antimony uptake by wheat. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 14(4), 679–686.
Steely, S., Amarasiriwardena, D. and Xing, B. (2007). An investigation of inorganic antimony species and antimony associated with soil humic acid molar mass fractions in contaminated soils. Environmental Pollution, 148(2), 590–598.
Stefaniak, S., Miszczak, E., Szczepańska-Plewa, J. and Twardowska, I. (2015). Effect of weathering transformations of coal combustion residuals on trace element mobility in view of the environmental safety and sustainability of their disposal and use. I. Hydrogeochemical processes controlling pH and phase stability. Journal of Environmental Management, 156, 128-142.
Sun, F., Wu, F., Liao, H. and Xing, B. (2011). Biosorption of antimony (V) by freshwater cyanobacteria Microcystis biomass: chemical modification and biosorption mechanisms. Chemical Engineering Journal, 171(3), 1082–1090.
Sun, H., Yan, S. C. and Cheng, W. S. (2000). Interaction of antimony tartrate with the tripeptide glutathione: Implication for its mode of action. European Journal of Biochemistry, 267(17), 5450–5457.
Sun, W., Xiao, E., Dong, Y., Tang, S., Krumins, V., Ning, Z., Sun, M., Zhao, Y., Wu, S. and Xiao, T. (2016). Profiling microbial community in a watershed heavily contaminated by an active antimony (Sb) mine in Southwest China. Science of the Total Environment, 550, 297–308.
Sundar, S. and Chakravarty, J. (2010). Antimony toxicity. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 7(12), 4267–4277.
Takahashi, T., Shozugawa, K. and Matsuo, M. (2010). Contribution of amorphous iron compounds to adsorptions of pentavalent antimony by soils. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 208(1–4), 165–172.
Tandy, S., Meier, N. and Schulin, R. (2017). Use of soil amendments to immobilize antimony and lead in moderately contaminated shooting range soils. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 324, 617-625.
Terry, L. R., Kulp, T. R., Wiatrowski, H., Miller, L. G. and Oremland, R. S. (2015). Microbiological oxidation of antimony (III) with oxygen or nitrate by bacteria isolated from contaminated mine sediments. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 81(24), 8478–8488.
Tian, H., Zhou, J., Zhu, C., Zhao, D., Gao, J., Hao, J., He, M., Liu, K., Wang, K. and Hua, S. (2014). A comprehensive global inventory of atmospheric antimony emissions from anthropogenic activities, 1995–2010. Environmental Science & Technology, 48(17), 10235-10241.
Tisarum, R., Ren, J. H., Dong, X., Chen, H., Lessl, J. T. and Ma, L. Q. (2015). A new method for antimony speciation in plant biomass and nutrient media using anion exchange cartridge. Talanta, 144, 1171–1175.
Tri-star resources. (2019). Antimony World | global map of antimony projects. Retrieved March 13, 2019, from http://antimonyworld.com/
Tsaplina, I. A., Sorokin, V. V, Zhuravleva, A. E., Melamud, V. S., Bogdanova, T. I. and Kondrat’eva, T. F. (2013). Oxidation of gold-antimony ores by a thermoacidophilic microbial consortium. Microbiology, 82(6), 680–689.
Tschan, M., Robinson, B. and Schulin, R. (2008). Antimony uptake by Zea mays (L.) and Helianthus annuus (L.) from nutrient solution. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 30(2), 187–191.
Tschan, M., Robinson, B. H. and Schulin, R. (2009). Antimony in the soil - Plant system - A review. Environmental Chemistry, 6(2), 106–115.
Tschan, M., Robinson, B. H., Nodari, M. and Schulin, R. (2009). Antimony uptake by different plant species from nutrient solution, agar and soil. Environmental Chemistry, 6(2), 144–152.
Turner, A. and Filella, M. (2017). Field-portable-XRF reveals the ubiquity of antimony in plastic consumer products. Science of the Total Environment, 584, 982-989.
Ungureanu, G., Santos, S., Boaventura, R. and Botelho, C. (2015a). Arsenic and antimony in water and wastewater: Overview of removal techniques with special reference to latest advances in adsorption. Journal of Environmental Management, 151, 326–342.
Varrica, D., Bardelli, F., Dongarra, G. and Tamburo, E. (2013). Speciation of Sb in airborne particulate matter, vehicle brake linings, and brake pad wear residues. Atmospheric Environment, 64, 18-24.
Wang, Q., He, M. and Wang, Y. (2011). Influence of combined pollution of antimony and arsenic on culturable soil microbial populations and enzyme activities. Ecotoxicology, 20(1), 9–19.
Wei, Y., Chen, Z., Wu, F., Hou, H., Li, J., Shangguan, Y., Zhang, J., Li, F. and Zeng, Q. (2015). Molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi at a large-scale antimony mining area in southern China. Journal of Environmental Sciences (China), 29, 18–26.
Westerhoff, P., Prapaipong, P., Shock, E. and Hillaireau, A. (2008). Antimony leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water. Water Research, 42(3), 551–556.
Wilson, S. C., Lockwood, P. V., Ashley, P. M. and Tighe, M. (2010). The chemistry and behaviour of antimony in the soil environment with comparisons to arsenic: A critical review. Environmental Pollution, 158(5), 1169–1181.
Wilson, S. C., Lockwood, P. V., Ashley, P. M. and Tighe, M. (2010). The chemistry and behaviour of antimony in the soil environment with comparisons to arsenic: a critical review. Environmental pollution, 158(5), 1169-1181.
Wu, C. C. and Chen, Y. C. (2017). Assessment of industrial antimony exposure and immunologic function for workers in Taiwan. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(7), 689.
Xi, J., He, M. and Lin, C. (2011). Adsorption of antimony (III) and antimony (V) on bentonite: kinetics, thermodynamics and anion competition. Microchemical Journal, 97(1), 85–91.
Xiao, E., Sun, W., Han, F., Sun, X., Xiao, T. and Li, B. (2019). Impacts of Arsenic and Antimony Co-Contamination on Sedimentary Microbial Communities in Rivers with Different Pollution Gradients. Microbial Ecology, (February), 1–15.
Yang, H., He, M. and Wang, X. (2014). Concentration and speciation of antimony and arsenic in soil profiles around the world’s largest antimony metallurgical area in China. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 37(1), 21–33.
Zhang, G., Ouyang, X., Li, H., Fu, Z. and Chen, J. (2016). Bioremoval of antimony from contaminated waters by a mixed batch culture of sulfate-reducing bacteria. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 115, 148–155.
Zhang, L., Yang, Q., Wang, S., Li, W., Jiang, S. and Liu, Y. (2017). Influence of silicon treatment on antimony uptake and translocation in rice genotypes with different radial oxygen loss. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 144, 572-577.
Zhao, H., Xia, B., Fan, C., Zhao, P. and Shen, S. (2012). Human health risk from soil heavy metal contamination under different land uses near Dabaoshan Mine, Southern China. Science of the Total Environment, 417, 45–54.
Zhuravleva, A. E., Tsaplina, I. A. and Kondrat’eva, T. F. (2011). Specific characteristics of the strains isolated from a thermoacidophilic microbial community oxidizing antimony sulfide ore. Microbiology, 80(1), 70–81.
Nowadays, one of the environmental issues is pollution of soil, water and plants resources with heavy metals. Antimony (Sb) is one of the most dangerous heavy metals, which by accumulation in the plant and animal tissues and transmission to the food chain, endangers human health. The critical limit for Sb in drinking water has been determined by the European Union and the United States to be 5 and 6 μg/l, respectively. The World Health Organization has reported this limit for the soil, 35 mg/kg. Exposure to Sb with various concentrations can cause a variety of diseases, cancers and genetic defects in humans. In addition, it causes keratitis, dermatitis, conjunctivitis, and gastritis. Concentrations above the critical Sb level in the soil can cause oxidative stress and reduce plant biomass, germination, root length, plant height, and plant photosynthesis. This element has a negative effect on microbial communities and soil enzymes and the rate of inhibition of soil microbial populations has been reported as bacteria> fungi> actinomyces. In general, the absorption of Sb by plants in acid soils is lower than calcareous soils and solutions for reducing Sb absorption in calcareous soils are to use phosphate fertilizers (antagonistic effect of phosphorus with Sb), fertilizers containing sulfur and the use of organic materials. Considering the existence of two volcanic formations in the country (Urmia-Dokhtar and East of the country formation) that contain various types of heavy metals, including Sb and increasing the exploitation and the number of Sb mines in the provinces of West Azerbaijan, Sistan and Baluchestan, Kurdistan, and Khorasan Razavi, it seems necessary determining the pollution levels of the water and soil resources of these provinces, as well as the provinces located on the two above-mentioned formations. Also, in the provinces of West Azerbaijan and Sistan and Baluchestan, the treatment of drinking water in terms of contamination with Sb should be on the government's agenda.