مطالعه طیفی، ساختاری و شیمیایی هیومیک اسیدهای استخراج‌شده از زغال‌سنگ‌های معادن ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مربی و عضو هیئت علمی/ گروه مهندسی فن‌آوری صنایع غذایی، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران

2 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد مهندسی مکانیک بیوسیستم، گروه مهندسی فنی کشاورزی، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران

3 استاد، گروه مهندسی فنی کشاورزی، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

به دلیل تأثیر و اهمیت­ مواد هیومیکی در انواع فرآیند­های زیست­محیطی، آگاهی و دانش از خصوصیات شیمیایی، طیفی و ساختاری این مواد، جنبه­هایی هستند که همیشه باید در مطالعات وابسته به مدیریت و پالایش اکوسیستم­ها درنظر گرفته شوند. در این پژوهش، پس از استخراج و پالایش هیومیک اسید از زغال­سنگ­های معادن ایران، از تکنیک گراویمتری برای تعیین درجه خلوص، از طیف­سنجی­های غیرمخرب مانند FT-IR، UV-VIS، ICP-OES و  CHNOS برای سنجش کیفی و کمی و همچنین از ریزنگاره­های SEM برای مطالعه ساختاری هیومیک اسید استفاده شد و نتایج بدست­آمده با نمونه هیومیک اسید استاندارد آلدریچ مقایسه شدند. نتایج آزمون گراویمتری نشان داد که درجه تخلیص هیومیک ­اسید تولیدشده 98 درصد است. از نظر کمی، نتایج آنالیز عنصری ICP-OES نشان دادند که بعد از پالایش هیومیک اسید، غلظت انواع فلزات سنگین در هیومیک اسید خیلی کمتر از محدوده مجاز پیشنهادشده هستند و گستره­ای از عناصر ماکرو و میکرومغذی در ساختار هیومیک اسید وجود دارند. همچنین نتایج کیفی آنالیزهای FT-IR، UV-VIS و SEM به خوبی حضور یک ساختار غالب آروماتیک و غنی از گروه­های عاملی کربوکسیلی و فنولی با درجه هیومیفیکاسیون و فشردگی بالا و نوع A با سطوح اسفنجی­مانند نرم و متخلخل ناهمگن را در هیومیک اسید نشان دادند. نتایج آنالیز CHNOS نیز علاوه بر تائید مناسب بودن زغال­سنگ استفاده­شده جهت استخراج هیومیک­اسید، محصول تولیدی را منطبق بر نمونه­ استاندارد هیومیک اسید نشان می­دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study of Spectral, Structural and Chemical characteristics of Humic Acids Isolated from Coalfield of Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali sharif paghaleh 1
  • Ehsan Sarlaki 2
  • Mohamadhosein Kianmehr 3
  • Nima Shakiba 2
1 Associate Professor/ Department of Food Technology Engineering, College of Abouraihan, University of Tehran
2 M.Sc. graduated of Mechanical Engineering of Biosystems, Department of Agro-technology Engineering, College of Abouraihan, University of Tehran
3 Professor, Department of Agro-technology Engineering, College of Abouraihan, University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

Due to the significant impact of humic substances on a variety of environmental processes, knowing the chemical, spectroscopic and structural features of these substances should always be considered in studies related to the management and remediation of the impacted ecosystems. In this study, after the extraction and purification of Humic Acid (HA) from low grade coals of mines of IRAN, the gravimetric technic was used in order to determine the degree of purity of HA from non-destructive spectroscopies such as ICP-OES, UV-VIS, FT-IR and CHNOS for measuring the quality and quantity of HA. Also, microstructures of SEM were used in order to study the structure of HA; then the obtained results were compared with standard Aldrich HA. The results of the gravimetric analysis showed that the produced HA had a 98% degree of purification. Also, from the view of quantity, the results of elemental analysis of ICP-OES indicated that after the purification of HA, the concentration of various heavy metals in HA are lower than the recommended safety limit and there is a range of both macronutrients and micronutrients in the structure of HA. Moreover, the quality results of FT-IR, UV-VIS and SEM analysis have shown the presence of an aromatic predominant structure, rich in carboxylic and phenolic functional groups with high humification and condensation degrees, and type A with a loose spongy and heterogeneous porous surfaces for HA. The CHNOS analysis also confirmed the suitability of the coal used to extract HA, and showed that the final product matches the standard HA results.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Characterization
  • Coal
  • Humic Acid
  • Spectroscopy
  • Structure
Agarwal, S. P., Khalid Anvar, M. D., Khanna, R., Asgar, A., and Sultana, Y.  (2010). Hhumic Acid from Shilajit-a physico-chemical and spectroscopic characterization. J. Serb. Chem. Soc, 75 (3): 413–422.

Alekseeva, V. A. (2009). Humic substances of the Late Carboniferous palygorskitic paleosol from the southern Moscow region, Russia. In Doklady Biological Sciences, 425 (1):128-132.

Asing, J., Wong, N.C., and Lau, S. (2009). Optimization of extraction method and characterization of Humic Acid derived from coals and composts, J. Trop. Agriculture and Food. Science, 37: 211–223.

Barancikova, G., Senesi, N., Brunetti, G. (1997). Chemical and spectroscopic characterization of Humic Acids isolated from different Slovak soil. Geoderma, 78: 251–266.

Baruah, B.P., Sharma, A. and Saikia, B.K. (2013). Petro-chemical Investigation of some Perhydrous Indian Coals. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, 81: 713-718.

Campitelli, P. A., Velasco, M. I. and Ceppi, S. B. (2006). Chemical and physicochemical characteristics of Humic Acids extracted from compost, soil and amended soil. Talanta, 69: 1234-1239.

Canellas, L. P., Oliveras, F. L., Aguiar, N. O., Jones, D. L., Nebbioso, A., Mazzei, P and Piccolo, A. (2015). Humic and fulvic acids as biostimulants in horticulture. Scientia Horticulturae, 196: 15–27.

Chen, Y., Senesi, N., Schnitzer, M. (1977). Information provided on Humic Substances by E4/E6 ratios. Soil Science Society of American Journal, 41: 352–358.

Cieslewicz, J., Gonet, S. S. and Marszelewski, W. (2008). Differences in the properties of bottom sediments in the system of Wdzydze lakes (Northern Poland). Soil and Water Res, 3 (1): 21-30.

Conte, P., Agretto, A., Spaccini, R and Piccolo, A. (2005). Soil remediation: Humic Acids as natural surfactants in the washings of highly contaminated soils. Environmental Pollution, 135: 515–522.

Das, T., Saikia, B. K. and Baruah, B. P. (2013). Feasibility studies for isolation of Humic Acid from coal of Mongchen Coalfield, Nagaland. Jour. Indian Chem. Soc, 90: 2007-2014.

Das. T., Saikia, K. B., Bourah. B. P., Das, D. (2015). Characterizations of Humic Acid Isolated from Coals of Two Nagaland Coalfields of India in Relation to their Origin. Journal geological society of India, 86: 468-474.

Debska, B., Maciejewska, A. and Kwiatkowska, J. (2002). The effect of fertilization with brown coal on Haplic Luvisol Humic Acids. Rostl. Vyroba, 48 (1): 33-39.

Enev, V., Pospisilova, L., Klucakova, M., Liptaj, T., Doskocil, L. (2014). Spectral characterization of selected Humic Substances. Soil & Water Res, 9: 9–17.

Francioso, O., Montecchio, D., Gioacchini, P. and Ciavatta, C. (2005). Thermal analysis (TG–DTA) and isotopic characterization (13C–15N) of Humic Acids from different origins. Appl. Geochem, 20: 537–544.

Georgakopolos, A., Iordanidis, A. and Kapina, V. (2003). Study of low rank Greek coals using FT-IR spectroscopy. Energy Sour, 25: 995-1005.

Giovanela, M., Crespo, J. S., Antunes, M., Adamatti, D. S., Fernandes, A. N., Barison, A., DA Silva, C. W. P., Guegan, R., Motelica-Heino, M. and Sierra, M. M.D. (2010). Chemical and spectroscopic characterization of Humic Acids extracted from the bottom sediments of a Brazilian subtropical microbasin. Jour. Mol. Struct, 981: 111-119.

Hu, G. X., Sun, Z. G., Gao, H. Y. (2010). Novel process of simultaneous removal of SO2 and NO by sodium humate solution. Environ. Sci. Technol., 44, 6712−6717.

Ketris, M. P., Yudovich, Ya. E., (2009). Estimations of Clarkes for Carbonaceous biolithes: World averages for trace element contents in black shales and coals. International Journal of Coal Geology, 78: 135-148.

Klocking, R. and Helbig, R. N. B. (2005). Medical aspects and applictions of Humic Substances. Biopolymers for Medical and Pharmaceutical Application. Wiley-Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, pp 3−16.

Kumada, K. (1987). Chemistry of Soil Organic Matter. Japan Scientific Societies Press, Tokyo.

Kurkova, M., Klika, Z., Klikova, C. and Havel, J. (2004). Humic Acids from oxidized coals. I. Elemental composition, titration curves, heavy metals in Humic Acid samples, nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of Humic Acid and infrared spectroscopy. Chemosphere, 54 (8): 1237-1245.

Lamar, R.T., Olk, D.C., mayhew, L and Bloom, P.R. (2014). A New Standardized Method for Quantification of Humic and Fulvic Acids in Humic Ores and Commercial Products. Journal of AOAC International, 94 (3): 1-10.

Lawson, G.J., Stewart, D. (1989). Coal Humic Acids. In: Hayes B.H.M., MacCarthy P., Malcolm R.L., Swift R.S. (eds): Humic Substances II, Search of Structure. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester, 642–686.

Matsui, Y., Kumada, K. and Shiraishi, M. (1984). An X-ray diffraction study of Humic Acids. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr, 30: 13-24.

Melo, B. A., Lopes Motta, F., Santana, M. H. A. (2015). Humic Acids: Structural properties and multiple functionalities for novel technological developments. Materials Science and Engineering C, (0): 59-94.

Olivella, M. A., Sole, M., Gorchs, R., Lao, C., De Las Heras, F. X. C. (2011). Geochemical Characterization of a Spanish Leonardite Coal. Arch. Min. Sci, 56 (4): 789–804.

Orlov D.S. (1985). Soils Chemistry. Moscow State University, Moscow.

Pena-Mendez, E. M., Havel, J., Patocka, J. (2005). Humic Substances - compounds of still unknown structure: applications in agriculture industry, environment and biomedicine. Journal of Applied Biomedicine, 3: 13-24.

Pospisilova, L and Fasurova, N. (2010). Characterization of Soil Humic Substances by Ultraviolet-Visible and Synchronous Fluorescence Spectroscopy. J. central European agriculture, 11 (3): 351-358.

Pospisilova, L and Fasurova, N. (2011). Spectroscopic Characteristics of Humates Isolated from Different Soils. Soil & Water Res, 6 (3): 147–152.

Pourret, O., Davranche, M., Gruau, G. and Dia, A. (2007). Rare earth elements complexation with Humic Acid. Chem. Geol, 243: 128-141.

Purmalis, O., Porsnovs, D. and Klavins, M. (2011). Differential thermal analysis of peat and peat Humic Acids. Mat. Sci. Appl. Chem, 24: 89-93.

Rose, M. T.; Patti, A. F.; Little, K. R.; et al. (2014). Chapter two – A meta-analysis and review of plant-growth response to Humic Substances: practical implications for agriculture. Adv. Agron, 124: 37−89.

Saikia, B. K., Sharma, A., Khound, K. and Baruah, B. P. (2013). Solid State 13C-NMR Spectroscopy of some Oligocene Coals of Assam and Nagaland. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, 82: 295-298.

Saikia, B.K., Baruah, R.K. and Gogoi, P.K. (2007a). FT-IR and XRD analysis of coal from Makum coalfield of Assam. Jour. Earth Syst. Sci., 116 (6): 575-579.

Saikia, B.K., Sahu, O.P. and Boruah, R.K. (2007b). FT-IR spectroscopic investigation of high sulfur assam coals and their solvent-extracts. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, 70 (6): 917-922.

Salati, S., Papa, G., Adani, F. (2011). Perspective on the use of Humic Acids from biomass as natural surfactants for industrial applications. Biotechnology Advances, 29: 913–922.

Senesi, N., D’Orazio, V., Ricca, G. (2003). Humic Acids in the first generation of Euro soils. Geoderma, 116: 325–344.

Sim, S.F., Lau, S., Wong, N.C., Janice, A., Faizal, M.N. M and Satirawaty, M.P. A. (2006). Characteristics of Humic Acids of Mukah coal in Sarawak. J. Trop. Agric. and. Fd. Sc. 34 (2): 333-342.

Stevenson, F. J. (1994). Humus Chemistry: Genesis, Composition, Reactions. Wiley-Interscience, New York.

Sun, Z., Tang, B., Xie, H. (2015). Treatment of Waste Gases by Humic Acid. Energy& Fuels, 29 (3), pp 1269–1278.

Tarhan, I. H., Ayyildiz, F., Topkafa, M., Arslan, F., Tas, A. S. T., Sherazi, H., Kara, H. (2015). Chemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of Humic Acid Isolated from Ilgin Lignite, Turkey. International Journal of Scientific and Technological Research, 1 (1): 176-183.

Tong, Y., Chen, K., Yang, R. (2014). The application progress of Humic Acids in ecological environment. Humic Acid (China), 1: 9−13.

Wuana, R. A. and Okieimen, F. E. (2011). Heavy Metals in Contaminated Soils: A Review of Sources, Chemistry, Risks and Best Available Strategies for Remediation. International Scholarly Research Network Ecology, 40: 26-47.

Xavier, D. M., Silva, A. S., Santo,s R. P., Mesko, M. F., Costa, S. N., Freire, V. N., Cavada, B. S. and Martins, J. L. (2012). Characterization of the coal Humic Acids from the candiota coalfield, Brazil. Int. Jour. Agric. Sci, 4(5): 238-242.

Zhang, X., Zhang, P., Wu, Z., Zhang, L., Zeng, G. and Zhou, C. (2013). Adsorption of methylene blue onto HA-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects, 435: 85-90.