کارایی مدل WEPP در برآورد رواناب و هدررفت خاک در مراتع سنگریزه ای حوضه خامسان کردستان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه تهران

2 عضو هیات علمی گروه علوم خاک داشگاه تهران

3 دانشگاه کردستان

چکیده

هدف از این تحقیق بررسی کارایی مدل WEPP در برآورد رواناب و رسوب ناشی از رخدادهای طبیعی در سطح کرت در مراتع حوضه خامسان کردستان بود. رواناب و رسوب حاصل از رخدادهای منجر به رواناب در طول سال­های 1389 تا 1392 در 18 کرت با ابعاد 24 متر طول و 8/1 متر عرض اندازه­گیری شد (6 دامنه- سه کرت در هر دامنه). همزمان داده‌های ورودی مورد نیاز مدل از جمله ویژگی­های خاک، پوشش گیاهی و پوشش زمین در طول این مدت بررسی گردید. در این مدت، تعداد 24 رخداد مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. بعد از واسنجی مدل WEPP بر اساس قسمت تک رخداد با 8 رخداد، اعتبارسنجی مدل با 16 رخداد باقیمانده صورت گرفت. مدل توانست به میزان قابل قبولی رواناب و هدررفت خاک ناشی از رخدادهای طبیعی را در دامنه­های مرتعی دارای مقادیر قابل توجهی جزء سنگی پیش­بینی نموده و برآوردهای هدررفت خاک تا حدودی بهتر از رواناب بود. به­طور کلی، کارایی مدل در دامنه­های با مقادیر جزء سنگی (به­ویژه پوشش سنگی) و درصد آهک بالاتر، کم­تر از دامنه­های دیگر بود. به نظر می­رسد علاوه بر ویژگی­های دامنه­های مورد بررسی، تغییرات شدت بارندگی در طول هر رخداد نیز تأثیر به­سزایی بر تولید رواناب و رسوب و تخمین­های مدل داشت. در مدل WEPP برای تک رخداد، صرفاً بخشی از ویژگی­های یک بارندگی به مدل وارد شده و تغییرات در طول یک بارندگی که ممکن است تأثیر به­سزایی بر مقدار رواناب و رسوب داشته باشد در نظر گرفته نشده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

WEPP model efficiency in estimation of runoff and soil loss in stony rangelands of Khamesan watershed, Kurdistan

نویسندگان [English]

  • Naser Khaleghpanah 1
  • Hossein Asadi 2
  • Mahdi Shorafa 1
  • Manoochehr Gorji 1
  • Masood Davari 3
1 University of Tehran
2 University of Tehran
3 University of Kordestan
چکیده [English]

The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of WEPP model to estimate the runoff and soil erosion under natural events at plot scale in rangelands of Khamesan watershed, Kurdistan. The runoff and sediment induced by events leading to runoff were measured over a three year period (2011 - 2013) in eighteen plots of 24 m long and 1.8 m wide (6 hillslopes with three plots in each). Concurrently, the input data including soil characteristics, vegetation and ground cover were evaluated and recorded during the period.An overall of 24 events were investigated. After calibrating the model  using the eight events’ data based on the single event section of the model, the validation of WEPP model was carried out using the 16 remaining events. The model estimated the runoff and soil erosion with an acceptable accuracy under natural events in rangeland hillslopes containing significant amounts of rock fragments. The soil erosion estimations were somewhat better than the total runoff. In general, the model efficiency was lower in the hillslopes with higher rock fragments (especially rock cover) and higher percentage of lime compared with the other hillslopes. It seems that rainfall intensity pattern during each event also had a significant effect on the model estimations. In WEPP model for single event estimations, only a number of storm characteristics are used as input data, and intra-storm variations are not considered which may have a significant impact on the amounts of runoff and sediment.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Model validation
  • Plot
  • Rock fragment
  • Single event
  • Soil loss
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