تأثیر انواع خاک‌ورزی و گیاه پوششی بر پایداری خاک‌دانه‌ها، مقاومت کششی خاک‌دانه‌ها و مقاومت فروروی یک خاک لوم سیلتی در همدان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه بوعلی سینا-همدان

2 دانشگاه بو علی سینا همدان

چکیده

عملیات مدیریتی خاک تأثیر متفاوتی بر مقاومت در مکش‌های مختلف دارند که به‌ندرت مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. در این مطالعه تأثیر توأم عوامل خاک­ورزی و گیاه پوششی بر پایداری خاکدانه‌ها، مقاومت کششی خاکدانه‌ها و مقاومت فروروی خاک در مکش­های متفاوت بررسی شد. اثر عامل خاک­ورزی در سه سطح شخم با گاوآهن برگردان، چیزل و بدون خاک­ورزی و عامل گیاه پوششی در سه سطح ماشک، خلر و بدون گیاه پوششی با آزمون فاکتوریل در سه تکرار اعمال شد. پایداری خاکدانه‌ها با روش الک تر، مقاومت کششی خاکدانه‌ها با روش غیرمستقیم دکستر و کروسبرگن و مقاومت فروروی خاک با دستگاه فروسنج ریز اندازه­گیری شدند. عملیات مدیریتی خاک در مکش 30 کیلوپاسکال بیش­ترین تأثیر را بر خصوصیات مقاومتی خاک نشان داد. عامل بدون خاک­ورزی به علت کاهش شدت خاک­ورزی و دست­نخورده بودن خاک باعث کاهش مقاومت کششی شد. تیمار خاک­ورزی حفاظتی-خلر باعث افزایش پایداری خاکدانه‌ها در فصل بهار به مقدار 155 درصد نسبت به تیمار بدون خاک­ورزی-بدون گیاه پوششی شد. همچنین تیمار مذکور باعث افزایش مقاومت کششی خاکدانه‌ها در فصل پاییز در دامنه 7 تا 45 درصد نسبت به سایر تیمارها شد. تیمار خاک­ورزی حفاظتی-بدون گیاه پوششی در غالب مکش­ها باعث کاهش مقاومت فروروی نسبت به غالب تیمارها در دامنه 5/4 تا 99 درصد شد. احتمالاً علت آن شخم سطحی خاک و کاهش تردد ماشین‌آلات کشاورزی بود. بنابراین کاربرد گیاه پوششی خلر با خاک‌ورزی حفاظتی در زمین‌های زراعی توصیه می­شود. نتایج مطالعه مقاومت خاکدانه‌ها با انجام تحقیقات بیشتر، می‌تواند در تعیین زمان بهینه انجام عملیات خاک‌ورزی از نظر رطوبتی استفاده شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of different tillage systems and cover crop on aggregate stability, aggregate tensile strength and penetration resistance of a silt loam soil in Hamedan

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zeinab Zangeneh 1
  • Hosein Bayat 2
  • Farhad Bayazidi 1
  • Javad Hamzei 1
1 Bu-ali Sina University of Hamedan
2 Bu ali Sina University of Hamedan
چکیده [English]

Soil management practices have different impacts on the values of soil resistance at different suctions, which have been rarely evaluated. In this study, the combined effects of tillage and cover crop factors on the aggregate stability, tensile strength of aggregates and soil penetration resistance at different suctions were evaluated. The tillage factor in three methods including moldboard plow, chisel plow and no-tillage, and cover crop factor in three types including Vetch, Lathyrus and no cover crop at the factorial design with three replications was applied. The aggregate stability was measured using wet-sieving method. The tensile strength of aggregates and the penetration resistance of the undisturbed samples were determined by Dexter and Kroesbergen indirect method and a micro penetrometer, respectively. Soil management practices had the highest impact on the resistance characteristics at 30 kPa matric suction. No tillage treatment reduced the tensile strength due to the reduced tillage intensity and the intact soil. The conservation tillage with Lathyrus cover crop increased the stability of aggregates by 155 percent in comparison with the no tillage-no cover crop in the spring season. Also, conservation tillage with Lathyrus treatment increased the tensile strength of aggregates by 7-45 percent compared with other treatments in the autumn season. The conservation tillage without cover crop reduced the penetration resistance in comparison with most treatments by 4.5-99 percent at most matric suctions due to the reduced plowing and the decreased agricultural machinery traffic. Therefore, this study recommends using Lathyrus cover crop with conservation tillage in agricultural fields. The results of studying the aggregates’ strength with further research, could be used to determine the optimum time of agricultural operations.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Compression
  • Conventional tillage
  • conservation tillage
  • Vetch
  • Lathyrus
Abid, M., and Lal, R. (2009). Tillage and drainage impact on soil quality: II. Tensile strength of aggregates, moisture retention and water infiltration. Soil and Tillage Research, 103(2), 364-372.

Ahmadvand, G., and Hajinia, S (2015). The impact of different caver crope and tillage systems on soil physical properties and yield of potatoes. Journal of Crop Production 8, 163-182 (In Farsi).

Alcántara, C., Pujadas, A., and Saavedra, M. (2011). Management of cruciferous cover crops by mowing for soil and water conservation in southern Spain. Agricultural Water Management 98, 1071-1080.

Allen, R. R., and J.T. Musick (1997). Tillage method and depth effects on furrow irrigation infiltration. Appl. Eng. Agric 13, 737-742.

Alvarez, R. and. Steinbach. H. S. (2009). A review of the effects of tillage systems on some soil physical properties, water content, nitrate availability and crops yield in the Argentine Pampas. Soil and Tillage Research 104, 1-15.

 Annabi, M., Houot, S., Francou, C., Poitrenaud, M., and Bissonnais, Y. L. (2007). "Soil aggregate stability improvement with urban composts of different maturities". Soil Science Society of America Journal 71, 413-423.

An, S., Mentler, A., Mayer, H., and and Blumc, W. E. H. (2010). Soil aggravation, aggregate stability, organic carbon and nitrogen in different soil aggregate fractions under forest and shrub vegetation on the Loess Plateau, China. Catena 81, 226-233.

Bahrani, M. J., Raufat, M.H., and Ghadiri, H (2007). Influence of wheat residue management on irrigated corn grain production in a reduced tillage system. Soil Till .Res 94, 305-309.

Bayat, H. (2003). The effect of tillage and wheels traffic on  soil physical properties. Masters thesis soil, School of Agriculture, Bu Ali Sina University (In Farsi).

Bayat, H., Mahbubi, A. E., Hajabbasi, M. A., Mossadeghi, M. R (2007). The effect of tillage systems and a variety of agricultural machines on Bulk Density, Cone Index and Structural Stability of a sandy loam soil. Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources 42, 451-461. (In Farsi).

Beare, M. H., and Bruce, R. R. (1993). A comparison of methods for measuring water-stable aggregates: implications for determining environmental effects on soil structure. Geoderma, 56(1), 87-104.

Blanco-Canqui, H., Lal, R., Owens, L.B., Post, W.M., Izaurralde, R.C (2005a). Mechanical properties and soil organic carbon of soil aggregates in the northern Appalachians. Soil Science Society of America Journal 69, 1472–1481.

Blanco-Moure, N., Angurel, L. A., Moret-Fernández, D., and López, M. V. (2012). Tensile strength and organic carbon of soil aggregates under long-term no tillage in semiarid Aragon (NE Spain). Geoderma 189, 423-430.

Bond, W., Turner, R., and Grundy, A. (2003). A review of non-chemical weed management. HDRA, the  Organic Organisation, Ryton Organic Gardens, Coventry, UK. 81 pp.

Bouajila, A., and Gallali, T. (2010). "Land use effect on soil and particulate organic carbon, and aggregate stability in some soils in Tunisia". African Journal of Agricultural Research 5, 764-774.

Boydaş, M. G., and Turgut, N. (2007). Effect of tillage implements and operating speeds on soil physical properties and wheat emergence. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 31, 399-412.

Bruce, R. C., and Rayment, G. E (1982). Analytical methods and interpretations used by the Agricultural Chemistry Branch for Soil and Land Use Surveys.

Causarano, H. (1993). Factors affecting the tensile strength of soil aggregates. Soil and Tillage Research, 28(1), 15-25.

Celik I, G. H., Budak M and Akpinar C (2010). Effects of long-term organic and mineral fertilizers on bulk density and penetration resistance in semiarid Mediterranean soil conditions. Geoderma 160, 236-243.

Celik, I. (2011). Effects of Tillage Methods on Penetration Resistance, Bulk Density and Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity in a Clayey Soil Conditions. Agricultural Sciences 17, 143-156.

Chauhan, B. S., A. Yadav and R. K. Malik. (2002). "Zero tillage and its impac soil properties: a brief review. In: Malik, R.K., Balyan, R.S., Yadav, A., Pahwa, S.K. (Eds.) , Herbicide Resistance Management and Zero Tillage in Rice–Wheat System". March. 2002, 6-4 CCSHAU, Hisar, India, 109–114.

Chen, Y., Cavers, C., Tessier, S., Monero, F., and Lobb, D. (2005). Short-term tillage effects on soil cone index and plant development in a poorly drained, heavy clay soil. Soil and Tillage Research, 82(2), 161-171.

Choudhury . S. G Srivastava. S. Singh, R. C., S.K . Sharma, D.K. Singh, S.K. Sarkar, D. (2014). "Tillage and residue management effect on soil aggregation,organic carbon dynamics and yield attribute in rice-wheacroping system under reclaimed sodic soil". Soil and Tillage Research, 136, 76-83.

Conceição, P. C. Dieckow., J.; Bayer, C (2013). Combined role of no-tillage and cropping systems in soil carbon stocks and stabilization. Soil and Tillage Research 129, 40-47.

Constantini, A. (1996). Relationships betwin cone penetration resistance, bulk density and moisture content in uncultivated,repacked, and cultivated hardsetting and nonhardsetting soils from the coastal lowlands of south-east Queensland. NZ J. ForSci, 26, 395-412.

Cresswell, H. P., and Hamilton, G. J (2002). Bulk density and pore space relations. In Soil physica measurement and interpretation for land evaluation: A laboratory. Eds N. J. McKenzie, H. Cresswell and K. Coughlan. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne handbook. 58-35

Dabney, S. M., G.V. Wilson, K. C. Mcgregor and G. R. Foster (2004). History, residue and tillage effects on erosion of loessial soil. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineering 47, 767–775.

Da Veiga, M., Horn, R., Reinert, D. J., and Reichert, J. M. (2007). Soil compressibility and penetrability of an Oxisol from southern Brazil, as affected by long-term tillage systems. Soil and Tillage Research, 92(1), 104-113.

Dexter, A., and Kroesbergen, B. (1985). Methodology for determination of tensile strength of soil aggregates. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 31(2), 139-147.

Dickson, E., Rasiah, V., and Groenevelt, P. (1991). Comparison of four prewetting techniques in wet aggregate stability determination. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 71(1), 67-72.

Dorneles, E. P., Lisboa, B. B., Abichequer, A. D., Bissani, C. A., Meurer, e. j., and Vargas, L. K (2015). Tillage, fertilization systems and chemical attributes of a Paleudult. Scientia Agricola 72, 175-186.

Fuentes JP, Flury. M. and. Bezdicek. D. (2004). Hydraulic properties in a silt loam soil under natural prairie, conventional till, and no-till. Soil Sience Society American Journal 68, 1679- 1688.

Gabriel, J. L., and Quemada, M (2011). Replacing bare fallow with cover crops in a maize cropping system: Yield, N uptake and fertilizer fate. Eur. J. Agro 34, 133-143.

Gao, W., Watts, C., Ren, T., and Whalley, W. (2012). The effects of compaction and soil drying on penetrometer resistance. Soil and Tillage Research, 125, 14-22.

Ghorbani, R., M. H. Rashed Mohassel, S. A. Hosseini, S. K. Mousavi and K. Hajmohammadian Ghalibaf (2009). Sustainable weed management. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Press, 924.

Hallett, P., Dexter, A., and Seville, J. (1995). Identification of pre-existing cracks on soil fracture surfaces using dye. Soil and Tillage Research, 33(3), 163-184.

Hazelton, P. A., and Murphy, B. W. (2007). "Interpreting soil test results: what do all the numbers mean?," CSIRO publishing.Herrick, J. E., and Jones, T. L. (2002). A dynamic cone penetrometer for measuring soil penetration resistance. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66, 1320-1324.

Imhoff, S., da Silva, A.P., Dexter, A (2002). Factors contributing to the tensile strength and friability of Oxisols. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66, 1656–1661.

Jin, K., Sleutel, S., and Buchan, D (2009). Changes of enzyme activities under different tillage practices in the Chinese Loess Plateau. Soil Till. Res 104, 115-120.

Jones, C. A. (1983). Effect of soil texture on critical bulk densities for root growth. Soil Science Society of America Journal 47, 1208-1211.

Kemper, W. D. a. Rosenau. C. R. (1986). Aggregate stability and size distribution. In: Klute, A. (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 1. Physical and Mineralogical Methods. 2nd ed., Agron. Monog. 9. ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI., PP. 425-442.

Khazai, A., Mosadeghi, M.R. and Mahboubi, A.R. (2008). "Effect of laboratory condition, organic matter content, clay and calcium carbonates on mean weight diameter and tensile strength of aggregates in some Hamadan soils". J. Sci. Tech. of Agri. Natural Resource 12, 123-134.

Lamei Hervani, J. (2013). Assessment of dry forage and crude protein yields. competition and advantage indices in mixed cropping of annual forage legume crops with barley in rainfed comditions of Zanjan province in Iran. Seed and Plant Production Journal 29, 169-183. (In Farsi).

Lapen, D., Topp, G., Gregorich, E., and Curnoe, W. (2004). Least limiting water range indicators of soil quality and corn production, eastern Ontario, Canada. Soil and Tillage Research, 78(2), 151-170.

Ley, G., Mullins, C., and Lal, R. (1993). Effects of soil properties on the strength of weakly structured tropical soils. Soil and Tillage Research, 28(1), 1-13.

Lugandu, S. ( 2013). Factors Influencing the Adoption off Conservation Agriculture by Smallholder Farmers in Karatu and Kongwa Districts of Tanzania. Presented at REPOA’s 18th Annual Research Workshop held at the Kunduchi Beach Hotel, Dares Salaam, Tanzania, 55.

Macks, S., Murphy, B., Cresswell, H., and Koen, T. (1996). Soil friability in relation to management history and suitability for direct drilling. Soil Research, 34(3), 343-360.

McDaniel M, Tiemman. L. and Grandy. A. (2014). Does agricultural crop diversity enhance soil microbial biomass and organic matter dynamics? A meta-analysis. Ecological Applications 24, 560–570.

Metson, A. J. (1961). Methods of chemical analysis for soil survey samples. Soil Bureau Bulletin No. 12, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research.Government Printer: Wellington, New Zealand, 168–175.

Mohammadi, J (2006). Pedometry-First volume: Classic Statistics. Pelk Press. p 531.

Moradi, F., Khalili Moghaddam, B., Gafari, Cirrus and Ghorbani Dashtaki, Sh (2014). mechanized cultivation and long-term impact on some soil physical properties in a number of sugar cane agro-industry in Khuzestan province. Journal of Soil and Water (Agricultural Science and Technology) 27, 1153-1165. (In Farsi).

Munkholm, L. J., Schjønning, P., and Rasmussen, K. J. (2001). Non-inversion tillage effects on soil mechanical properties of a humid sandy loam. Soil and Tillage Research, 62(1), 1-14.

Munkholm, L. J., Schjønning, P., and Kay, B. D. (2002). Tensile strength of soil cores in relation to aggregate strength, soil fragmentation and pore characteristics. Soil and Tillage Research, 64(1), 125-135.

Paustian, K., Collins, H. P., and Paul, E. A. (1997). "Management controls on soil carbon". Soil organic matter in temperate agroecosystems: Long-term experiments in North America. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. Management controls on soil carbon, 15-49.

Pytka, J. (2001). "Load effecte upon soil stress and deformation state in structured and disturbed sandy loam for two tillage treatments". Soil and tillage research  3, 123-139.

Ramos ME, B. E., García PA and Robles AB (2010). Cover crops under different managements vs. frequent tillage in almond orchards in semiarid conditions: effects on soil quality. Applied Soil Ecology 44, 6-14.

Rasouli Sherbyani, V. and. Abbaspoor Gilandeh., Y (2008). Effects of different tillage on some soil physical properties. Proceedings of the Fifth National Conference on Agricultural Machinery Engineering and Mechanization. Mashhad Ferdowsi University. (In Farsi).

Rhoades, J. D., Kandial A., and Mashali, A. M (1992). The use of saline water for crop production. Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations, Rome., 48.

Rosa HA, S. D., Veloso G, Santos RF, Souza SNM, Marins AC and Borosi A, (2012). Effects of the use of cover crops in the structure of an oxisol managed by a no-till farming system in the west of Paraná. Brazilian Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment 10, 1278-1280.

Ros, V. V., Souza, C.M.A., Vitorino, A.C.T., and Rafull, L. Z. L (2011). Oxisol resistance to penetration in no-till system after sowing.  31, 1104-1114.

Russo, V. M., Kindiger, B., and Webber, C.L (2006). Pumpkin yield and weed populations following annual ryegrass. J. Sus. Agri 28.

Rusta, M. G. A. Golchin., A. (2005). Theory of the formation of aggregates. soil and water conservation extension Journal, 1(3), 87-92. (In Farsi).

Safari, a., Asudar, M. A., Ghasemi-Nejad, M., Abdali Mashhadi, A. R. (2013). The impact of different tillage methods and crop residue on soil physical properties and wheat yield. Journal of Agricultural and sustainable production 23(2), 49-59.  (In Farsi).

Samadani, B., and M. Montazeri. (2009). The use of cover crop in sustainable agriculture. Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection Press, 186 pp. (In Farsi).

Sas, L. E. (2002). Getting started with the SAS learning edition. Cary, 200.

 Sherani, H., Hajabbasi., M.A., Afuni, M., and Hemat, A. (2010). The effect of tillage systems and organic fertilizers on soil penetration resistance under corn cultivation. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources 51, 141-154 (In Farsi).

Silva, S. G. C. Silva., A.P.; GIAROLA, N.F.B.; TORMENA, C.A. and SÁ, J.C.M. . R. (2012). Temporary effect of chiseling on the compaction of a Rhodic Hapludox under no-tillage. Bras. Ci. Solo 36, 547-555.

Suivan, P., and Diver. S. (2001). Overview of cover crops and green manures fundamentals of sustainable agriculture. NCAT Agriculture Specialist.

Stroosnijder, L. (2008). Modifying land management in order to improve efficiency of rainwater use in the African highlands. Soil & Tillage Research 103(2), 247-256.

Tavares Filho, J. Fonseca., I.C.B.; RIBON, A.A. and, and BARBOSA, G. M. C. (2006). Efeito da escarificação na condutividade hidráulica saturada de um Latossolo Vermelho sob plantio direto. Ci. Rural 36, 996-999.

To, J., and Kay, B. (2005). Variation in penetrometer resistance with soil properties: the contribution of effective stress and implications for pedotransfer functions. Geoderma, 126(3), 261-276.

Tullberg, J. (2010). Tillage, traffic and sustainability—a challenge for ISTRO. Soil and Tillage Research 111, 26-32.

Virto I, I. M., Fernández-Ugalde O, Urrutia I, Enrique A and Bescansa P (2012). Soil quality evaluation following the implementation of permanent cover crops in semi-arid vineyards. Organic matter, physical and biological soil properties. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 10, 1121-1132.

Voorhees, W. (1983). Relative effectiveness of tillage and natural forces in alleviating wheel-induced soil compaction. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 47(1), 129-133.

Watts, C., and Dexter, A. (1998). Soil friability: theory, measurement and the effects of management and organic carbon content. European Journal of Soil Science, 49(1), 73-84.

Wilkins, D., Siemens, M., and Albrecht, S. (2002). Changes in soil physical characteristics during transition from intensive tillage to direct seeding. Transactions-American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 45(4), 877-880.

Wright, A. L. and. Hons., F (2005). Tillage impacts on soil aggregation and carbon and nitrogen sequestration under wheat cropping swquences Soil and Tillage Research 84, 67-75.

Zamani, P. (2011). Statistical designs in animal science. Bu-Ali Sina University  Hamedan Press. (In Farsi).