ارزیابی فرسایش قابل‌تحمل خاک در مقیاس حوضه آبخیز بر اساس باروری و کیفیت خاک (حوضه حاجی قوشان استان گلستان)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه تهران

2 استاد گروه مهندسی علوم خاک دانشگاه تهران

3 دانشیار پژوهشکده حفاظت خاک و آبخیزداری

4 استادیار مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی استان گلستان

چکیده

فرسایش خاک مهم‌ترین شکل تخریب منابع خاک و منبع آلودگی­های غیرنقطه­ای به­شمار می­رود. هنگامی­که مقدار فرسایش خاک از آستانه قابل‌تحمل تجاوز کند طیف وسیعی از مشکلات اقتصادی-اجتماعی- محیط‌زیستی رخ می­دهند. روش­های مختلفی برای تعیین فرسایش قابل‌تحمل ارائه شده است که هرکدام دارای مزیت و محدودیت­های خاص خود هستند. در این پژوهش، روش مبتنی بر شاخص باروری و روش مبتنی بر عمق و کیفیت خاک به‌عنوان رایج­ترین روش­ها برای تعیین فرسایش قابل‌تحمل مورد استفاده قرار گرفتند. هر دو روش مجموعه­ای از ویژگی­های اساسی خاک شامل نفوذپذیری، ظرفیت نگه­داری آب، کربن آلی خاک، پایداری خاکدانه­ها، جرم مخصوص ظاهری و وضعیت حاصل­خیزی خاک شامل عناصر غذایی نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم را دربر دارند. نتایج نشان داد بین مقدار فرسایش قابل‌تحمل محاسبه‌شده با هر دو روش ارتباط نزدیکی وجود دارد. میانگین وزنی مقدار فرسایش قابل‌تحمل محاسبه‌شده برای منطقه موردمطالعه با استفاده از مدل شاخص باروری حدود 2/9 و بر اساس عمق و کیفیت خاک حدود 2/10 تن بر هکتار در سال برآورد شد. هرچند روش مبتنی بر عمق و کیفیت خاک به‌عنوان یک روش استاندارد مطرح است اما نتایج نشان داد که روش باروری خاک نیز کارایی قابل‌قبولی داشته و حتی به لحاظ مفهومی قوی­تر به نظر می­رسد؛ زیرا در این روش، وضعیت باروری خاک سطحی با خاک زیرسطحی مقایسه می­شود اما در روش کیفیت خاک فقط به وضعیت فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک سطحی توجه می­شود. از طرف دیگر، روش مبتنی بر عمق و کیفیت خاک، دامنه خاک­های متعلق به یک گروه بسیار زیاد بوده و بنابراین دقت تخمین فرسایش قابل‌تحمل پایین است. ازآنجایی‌که هر دو مدل تنها اثرات درون­مزرعه­ای فرسایش را حساب می­کنند، بنابراین مقادیر به‌دست‌آمده بدون درنظر گرفتن اثرات برون مزرعه­ای فرسایش، برای برنامه­های حفاظت خاک منطقه قابل توصیه هستند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of soil loss tolerance via soil productivity and quality at a watershed scale: Haji-Ghushan watershed, Golestan province

نویسندگان [English]

  • heidar ghafari 1
  • Manoochehr Gorji 2
  • Mahmood ArabKhedri 3
  • Ghorbanali Rooshani 4
  • Ahmad Heidari 2
1 university of tehran
2 University of Tehran
3 Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Institute
4 Agricultural researches Institute of Golestan
چکیده [English]

Erosion is known as one of the important factors in the degradation of soil resources and non-point pollutions. A wide range of damaging effects including social, economic and environmental problems occur when soil erosion rate goes beyond the allowable value. There are several methods to determine soil  erosion tolerance and each one has specific advantages and limitations. In this paper, two widely used methods were compared to determine the tolerable erosion in a watershed scale. The first approach is based on the assessment of the Productivity Index (PI) and the second approach is based on soil depth and soil quality index. A particular minimum data set of soil properties including infiltration, water capacity, organic carbon, aggregate stability, bulk density, and fertility status (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium) were used to calculate the criteria. The results showed that the calculated tolerable erosion by the two methods were closely related. The average tolerable soil erosion for the study area was determined 9.2 and 10.2 ton/ha/year based on soil productivity method and soil depth-quality approach, respectively. The PI-based approach is preferred over the soil depth-quality approach for two reasons: First, the PI-based approach is a depth-wise and chemo-physical properties of topsoil are compared with subsoil layers. Second, the soil depth-quality based approach is a general guide that cannot take the differences between soils into account in details. As both models just take the onsite effects of erosion into account, these values can be used for managers and decision-makers of soil conservation regardless off offsite impacts.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Soil degradation
  • non-point pollution
  • soil conservation
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