عنوان مقاله [English]
Wheat flour is known as the best nutrients supplier for human. In this research, the effects of combined application of nitrogen fertilizer, farmyard manure (FYM), sewage sludge and municipal waste compost on nutrients concentrations of wheat flour (Triticum aestivum cv. Alvand) were studied in a randomized complete blocks design with 15 treatments and three replicates in Agricultural Research Station of University of Tabriz at field conditions. The treatments consisted of T1 (control, without organic and nitrogen fertilizers), T2 (150 kg urea/ha), T3 (300 kg urea/ha), T4 (30 ton municipal waste compost/ha), T5 (60 ton municipal waste compost/ha), T6 (30 ton sewage sludge/ha), T7 (60 ton sewage sludge/ha), T8 (30 ton FYM/ha), T9 (60 ton FYM/ha), T10 (T4 + T2), T11 (T5 + T2), T12 (T6 + T2), T13 (T7 + T2), T14 (T8 + T2), and T15 (T9 + T2). At the end of growth period, grain yield and wheat flour nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), sodium (Na), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentrations were measured in different treatments. The results showed that application of 150 and 300 kg urea/ha increased wheat flour P, K, Na and Fe concentrations and grain yield compared to the control treatment. Urea fertilization had no significant effect (P≤0.05) on flour Zn, Mn and Cu concentrations. Application of FYM, sewage sludge and municipal waste compost with and without urea fertilizer significantly increased grain yield and N, P, K, Fe and Zn concentrations of flour compared to the control treatment. Flour Na concentration was increased by application of organic fertilizers without urea, but was reduced by integration of them with urea. The flour Mn and Cu concentrations were increased by application of FYM and sewage sludge, respectively. The Pb and Cd concentrations of wheat flour were negligible in different treatments. In general, in order to increase nutrients concentrations of wheat flour and improving its quality, application of 150 kg urea and 60 ton manure or municipal compost or sewage sludge per hectare can be recommended at similar conditions.