Temporal variability of runoff production under slope gradients in different soil

Document Type : Research Paper



Initiation time and production rate are the major runoff characteristics which can be affected by the changes of soil physical properties during rainfall. Temporal variation of these characteristics could be controlled by soil texture and slope gradient. This study was carried out to investigate temporal variation of runoff in both different soil textures those of clay loam, loam, and sandy loam and various slopes (5, 10, 15, 25(and 30) under a 40 mm h-1simulated rainfall in the lab. Soil texture and slope steepness were the important factors influencing runoff initiation time (P<0.01) and production rate (P<0.01).Clay loam appeared the lowest runoff initiation time (16 min) whereas sandy loam showed the longest time (46 min). Runoff initiation time was negatively affected with increasing slope gradient. Significant relationships were observed between runoff initiation time and slope gradient in clay loam (R2=0.86), loam (R2=0.86) and sandy loam (R2= 0.98). The highest effect of slope gradient on decreasing runoff initiation time was in sandy loam (63%) while clay loam showed the lowest value (28%). Significant relationships were found between runoff production and slope in clay loam (R2=0.89), loam (R2=0.95) and sandy loam (R2= 0.94). Runoff temporal variation pattern were strongly varied among the soils in the slope gradients. Runoff steadily increased in clay loam during initial rainfall times. This temporal variation of runoff was due to increasing water content and disruption of structure.


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