Estimation of the Actual Amount of Wheat Irrigation Water Using the NIAZAB System and Comparing with the Farm Measurement

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Associate Professor of Irrigation and Soil Physics, Soil and Water Research Institute, Agricultural Research and Education Organization, Karaj, Iran

2 Assistant professor, Department of irrigation and soil physics, Soil and Water Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran

3 Professor of Irrigation and Drainage Department, Agricultural Engineering and Technical Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Karaj, Iran

4 Javad Baghani, Scientific Broad Member, Agricultural Engineering Research Institute (AERI), Agricultural Research Education, and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran


Accurate estimation of irrigation water quantity, water productivity and irrigation water application efficiency of cultivated wheat in Iran are important and key indicators in agricultural sector planning. The purpose of this study was to investigate the results of field and farm measurements of irrigation water and wheat yield under farmers' management and compare them with estimating the NIAZAB system in 37 Township during a crop season (2016-2017) as well as determining wheat water productivity and application efficiency. The results showed that the average amount of wheat irrigation water measured in the farms and systems were 5710 and 5894 cubic meters per hectare, respectively, and the average grain yield of wheat measured in the farms and systems were 5215 and 4949 kg, respectively. The average water productivity of wheat measured in the farms and NIAZAB system were 1 and 0.9 kg/m3. The results showed that the NIAZAB system with a normal root mean error of 0.19% and agreement coefficient of 0.93 estimates the amount of wheat irrigation water in the township scale and wheat grain yield with a normal root mean error of 0.17% and agreement coefficient of 0.95 and estimates the productivity of wheat water with a normal root mean error of 0.24%, the efficiency of irrigation water application with a normal root mean error of 0.19% and the coefficient of agreement of 0.93. The values of the efficiency coefficient of the model show that the model provides acceptable results in determining the amount of irrigation water and wheat water productivity in the country farms. Therefore, the NIAZAB system can be used to estimate the volume required for the irrigation of plants in Iran and also in the farm water management.


Abasalan, Sh., Karimi, M., Heidari, N., Dehghan, A., Abbasi, F. and Rahimian, M.H. (2010). Determination and evaluation of water use efficiency in the lower saline lands of the Karkheh watershed. Agricultural Engineering Research Institute, Final Research, ReportNo.89/1267. (In Persian)
Abbasi, F., Naseri, A., Sohrab, F., Baghani, J., Abbasi, N. and Akbari, M. (2015). Improvement of water consumption efficiency, Agricultural Engineering and Technical Research Institute , Final Research  ReportNo.49/1327 . (In Persian
AbdzadGohari, A., Tafte, A., Ebrahimipak, N.A. and Babazadeh, H. (2021). Estimation of stress coefficients, plant coefficients and yield response to water in peanut under different levels irrigation. Iranian Journal of Soil and Water Research, 52(11),2763-2774. (In Persian)
Agricultural Planning, Economic and Rural Development Research Institute (APERDRI). (2016). Implementation projects of resistance economy - Program to improve the national production capacity of food security and production of strategic products, Ministry of Jihad Agriculture. (In Persian).
 Akhatar, M.E; Nizami, M.J, (.1990). Seasonal crop Evapotranspiration- Moisture stress function for Majer climatic zones in Pakistan. Soil physics application under stress environments. Precede dings of the international symposium on applied soil physics in stress Environments, 22-26 January 1989, Islamabad, Pakistan, 276-285.
ASCE_ EWRI. ( 2005 ). The ASCE standardized reference evapotranspiration equation. Technical Committee Report to the Environmental and Water Resources Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers from the Task Committee on Standardization of Reference Evapotranspiration. ASCE-EWRI, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Reston, VA 20191-4400, 173.
Asadi, H., Neyshaburi, M. and Siadat, H. (2001). Effect of water stress in different stages of growth on yield, yield components and some wheat relations. Proceedings of the 7th Iranian Soil Science Congress, Shahrekord. (In Persian)
Azimi Dezfuli, S.A., Ruknuddin Eftekhari, A., Nazari, B., Haydaj, A., Nizamipour, Q., Farajzadeh, M. and Fahmi, H. (2017). Analytical estimation of water requirement for wheat production in Iran. Space planning and design, 21 (2), 173-195. (In Persian)
Azimi Dezfuli, S.A. (2019). An Introduction to Agricultural WaterAccounting by Estimating Crop Water Consumption. J. Water and Sustainable Development, 3(6), 31-40. (In Persian)
Azizi zahan, A. A., Shahabifar, M., Ebrahimipak, N.A., Razavi, R., Ghalbi, S., Sarayi Tabrizi, M., Tolovi, R., and Piry, R. )2014(. Evaluation of the efficiency of wheat water consumption in Iran and the world. The first national conference on soil and water management in wheat production. Iran. (In Persian)
Baghani, J., Meiri,M., Verjavand, P., Health, N., Eslami, A., Shahrukh Nia, M.A., Kayani, A.R. , Gadami Firouzabadi, A.,  Haqati Moghadam, A., Khosravi, H., Akhwan, K., Behramlu, R., Naseri, A., Abbasi, F., Akbari, M., Abbasi, N., Mousavi Fazl, S.H., Taifeh Rezaei, h., Hosseinzadeh Ajirlu, p., Ghafari, b., Aghaei, M.J., Dehghanian, S.A. , Yusuf-Gamrakchi, A., Maqbeli Domain, A. , Eslami, A.R., Nakhjavani Moghadam M.M. and Nemati, Sh. (2018). Determining the water consumption of wheat in the country, Agricultural Engineering and Technical Research Institute, Karaj. Final Research Report No. 28181. (In Persian)
Barzikar, M., Eghderanjad, A., Tafte, A. and Ebrahimipak, N.A.)2020).Wheat Yield and Water Productivity Simulation in Hendijan Plain Using Aqua Crop Model. J.Water management in agriculture. 7(1): 53-64. (In Persian)
Cooper, J.L (1980): the effect of nitrogen fertilizer on Irrigation frequency and semi dwof wheat is southwest Australia: 1: growth and yield, 2: water use: Aust. J Exp. Agric. Anim. Husn, 20: 334-346.
Daniel, J. Foley., Prasad, S., Thenkabail, P. Aneece., Pardhasaradhi .G., eluguntla and Adam, J. Oliphant.) 2019(. A meta-analysis of global crop water productivity of three leading world crops (wheat, corn, and rice) in the irrigated areas over three decades, International Journal of Digital Earth, DOI: 10.1080/17538947.2019.1651912.
Deputy Minister of Water and Soil, Ministry of Agricultural Jihad,)DMWMSAJ). )2014(. Strategic document for improving productivity and saving agricultural water consumption, 6th Watershed and Aquifer Management Program, Ministry of Jihad Agriculture. (In Persian).
Ebrahimipak, N. (1993). Estimating the evaporation-transpiration of plants and determining the water requirement of autumn wheat using a lysimeter. Master's Thesis, Irrigation Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tabriz University, 145
Ebrahimipak, N. (1999) Determining the evaporation-transpiration potential of wheat by lysimeter method at Shahrekord station, no,14597.
Ebrahimipak, N. (2007). Determining the water requirement of cereals (wheat and barley) and evaluating the statistics and figures presented in the book Water Requirement of Plants in order to complete and increase its accuracy by using lysometric research in Qazvin. No.25978
Eric, L.J; French; O.F, Bucks; D.A, Harris . K,(1989).Consumptive use of water by Major crop in the southwestern united states. U.S.Agric. Res. Sevu. Canserv. Res. Rep 26(6).
Ghaseminezhad Raeini, M.R., Marofi, S., Zare Kohan, M. and  Maleki, A.( 2015). Investigation of water efficiency index and its comparison with the actual conditions of wheat farms. Journal of Irrigation Science and Engineering (Journal of Agricultural Science), 38(1), 72-77. (In Persian).
Jafari najafabadi, M. S. Tafteh, A., Ebrahimipak, N.(2022)Determining the water requirement and Applied water of bell pepper in the greenhouse and comparing it with the results of the water requirement system. Iran water and soil research. (In Persian)
Haghighati, B. (2013). Extension plan report - improving water management and optimization in agricultural production process. Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center. (In Persian).
Heydari, N. (2021). Wheat Water Productivity in Iran Compared with Data of Some Countries. Water research in agriculture. 35(4), 421-435. (In Persian)
Heydari, N. (2011). Determination and evaluation of water use efficiency of some major crops under farmer’s management in Iran. Journal of Water and Irrigation Management, 1(2) , 43-57. (In Persian).
Jamieson, P.D., Porter, J.R. and Wilson, D.R. (1991). A test of the computer simulation model ARCWHEAT1 on wheat crops grown in New Zealand. Field Crop Res. 27(2), 337–350.
Kahlown, M.A., Raoof, A., Zubair, M. and Doral, Kemper, W. (2007). Water use efficiency and economic feasibility of growing rice and wheat with sprinkler irrigation in the Indus Basin of Pakistan. Agricultural Water Management, 87(3), 292-298.
Kamali, G. and Alizadeh, A. (2007). Water requirement of plants in Iran, Imam Reza University (AS) Mashhad, Astan Quds Razavi Publishing House. (In Persian)
keikhai, F. and Ganji khorramdel, N. (2016.) Effect of deficit irrigation in corrugation and border methods on yield and water use efficiency of wheat cv. Hamoon. Journal of Water Research in Agriculture, 30(1), 1-11. (In Persian).
kiyomars, F. and nowzar, H. (2014). Agricultural water resource management with a view on the use of virtual water", National conference on solutions to the water crisis in Iran and the Middle East, Esfand, Shiraz, Iran. (In Persian)
khosravi, F.H(1989) Determining the evaporation-transpiration potential of wheat by lysimeter method at Varzghan station, no,10256.
Mircholi, F., Faramarzi, M. and Soltani, S. (2013). The effect of virtual water trade on the state of ecosystems, "The first international conference on terrestrial ecology, Aban, Isfahan, Iran. (In Persian)
Mirbagheri, v.,Nasiri Brothers, M., Emami, J. and Hosseini Thabit, S. M. 2017. Production and trade of basic agricultural products in the period of 2002-2017. Vice President of Infrastructure Research and Production Affairs, Office of Infrastructure Issues (Agricultural Department), Islamic Council Research Center, subject code 250, serial number 15021
Molden, D. ( 1997). Accounting for water use and productivity (No. 42). IWMI.
Moravejalahkam, b., Ebrahimipak, N.A , Tafete, A. and Hosseini, N. (2022). Sensitivity Analysis of Reference Evapotranspiration to Meteorological Parameters (Case Study: Synoptic Stations of Yazd Province). Iran water and soil research. (In Persian)
Mishra, H.s., Rathore, T.R,and Tomar,v.s (1995): water use efficiency of Irrigate wheat in the Tavai Region of India: Irrigation science. 1995, 16:2, 75-80.
Nakhjavanimoghaddam, M,M. ghahraman, B. and Zarei, Gh. (2017). Wheat water productivity analysis under different irrigation management practices in some regions of Iran. Journal of Research in Agriculure, 31(1), 43-57. (In Persian)
Nirizi, S. and Helmi Fakhrdavood, R. (2004). Comparison of water use efficiency at several points in Khorasan. Articles of the Eleventh Iranian Irrigation and Drainage Committee. Tehran. 391-403. (In Persian).
panahi, A.D.(1990) Determining the evaporation-transpiration potential of wheat by lysimeter method at Yasuj station, no,126590.
Salamati, N., Baghani, J. and Abbasi, F. )2018(. Determination of wheat water productivity in sprinkler and surface irrigation systems (Case Study in Behbahan). Iranian Journal of Soil and Water Research, 49 (4), 821- 830, (In Persian).
Shawcroft, R. W .1983. Limited Irrigation Amy crop yield up profit, Colorado .Rancherfarmer 37(4): 35-38.
Shajari, Sh. (2012). Comparison of productivity and economic and technical efficiency of irrigation water in wheat fields in Darab plain: Considering the Risks. Abstract of the Articles of the first National Conference on Water Management on the Farm, 10-9 June 2012, Karaj-Soil and Water Research Institute, p. 16.(In Persian)
Sun, S., Zhang C., Li X., Zhou T., Wang Y., Wu P. and Cai, H. ( 2017(. Sensitivity of crop water productivity to the variation of agricultural and climatic factors: A study of Hetao irrigation district, China. Journal of Cleaner Production, 142, 2562-2569.
Tafte, A. and Emdad, M. (2021). Determination of Crop Yield Response Factor (Ky) in Deficit Irrigation Management at Different Stages of Quinoa Plant Growth.. Water management in agriculture. 8(2), 101-116. (In Persian)
Tafteh, A., Ebrahimipak. N. A., Babazadeh, H. and Kaveh, F. (2014b).  Determine yield response factors of important crops by different production functions in Qazvin plain. Ecology, Environment and Conservation 20(2), 415-422.
Tafteh, A., Ebrahimipak. N. A., Babazadeh, H. and Kaveh, F. (2013). Evaluation of Improvement of Crop Production Functions for Simulation Winter Wheat Yields with Two Types of Yield Response Factors. Journal of Agricultural Science 5: 111-122.
Taheri, M., Rezavardinejad, V., Bahmanesh, J., Abbasi, F. and Baghani, J. (2020). Spatial Analysis of Water Productivity Index at Major Wheat Production Centers of IRAN. Water Research in Agriculture, 34(2), 217-227. (In Persian)
Willmott, C .J. (1982). Some comments on the evaluation of model performance. Bulletin of American Meteorology Society 63: 1309-1313.
RIZZo , V., maiorana,M., castrignano, A., Stelluti,M,.(1990) first evaluation of water balance in crops in rotation. Process dings Poc work shop held at Moden. 17-20 Apr 1990.
Yaghoubi, F., Jami-alahmadi, M., Bakhshi, MR. and Sayyari zahan, MH. )2016(. Comparison of Indicators of Technical and Economic Water Use Efficiency in Saffron and Wheat Production Systems in the Qaenat Region.
Zarei, G. and Jafari, M. H. (2015). The Role of Import and Export of Major Crop Productions in Virtual Water Trade and Water Footprint in Agricultural sector of Iran., Iranian Irrigation and Drainage Journal, No. 5, Vo, December 9, 2014, pp. 797-784. (In Persian).
Zhang.C., McBean .EA., Huang .J .A Virtual Water Assessment Methodology for Cropping Pattern Investigation. Water Resources Manage, 2014; 28, 2331–2349.