The Effect of Irrigation by Saline Water on Lentil Yield, Compared to Non-Saline Rainfed Cultivation Conditions (in Qazvin)

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran.


This research was conducted on lentil at Imam Khomeini international university in 2021. The treatments were included of rainfed (D) and five salinity levels of irrigation water with EC of 0.5 (S0), 2 (S1), 4 (S2), 6 (S3) and 8 (S4) dS.m-1. The experiment was performed in a randomized complete block design with three replications. In treatments of D, S0, S1, S2, S3 and S4, some parameters were measured; the biomass yields equal to 2094.66, 3621.9, 3525.6, 2771.6, 1965.62 and 1120.6 kg.h-1, the grain yield equal to 399.25, 957.53, 932.07, 639.25, 279.33 and 46.82 kg.ha-1 and the straw yield equal to 1695.41, 2664.37, 2593.53, 2132.35, 1686.29 and 1073.78 kg.ha-1,  respectively. The results showed that the use of water up to S2 salinity level was recommended for lentil cultivation. But higher salinity levels were reduced the yield relative to rainfed conditions. At the water salinity threshold of 5.5, 5.3 and 5.6 dS.m-1, the amounts of biomass, grain and straw were equal to rainfed conditions. Due to salinity stress, the relative yield (compared to rainfed) of biomass, grain and straw were decreased with a slope of 0.166, 0.325 and 0.129, respectively. As a result, the grain yield was more sensitive than the straw yield in terms of water salinity. The reason was the effect of salinity stress on plants pollination and lack of grain filling. The amount of water use efficiency (for production of lentil dry biomass) was calculated in treatments of D, S0, S1, S2, S3 and S4 which were equal to 3.55, 1.32, 1.3, 1.23, 1.11 and 0.97 kg.m-3, respectively. In general, the results showed the application feasibility of saline water (in the range of crop tolerance) for irrigation to increase the lentil yield (compared to rainfed conditions). In these conditions, the saline water resources of the region can be exploited.


Ahmadi, K., Ebadzadeh, H.R., Hatami, F., Abdshah, H. and Kazemian, A. (2020). Agriculture information in 2019. Ministry of agriculture, Iran. Pp. 1-89. (In Farsi)
Alla-Jabow, M.K. and Mahgoub, Z.B. (2017). Crop Water Productivity and Crop Coefficients of Lentil (Lens Culinaris M.) Under Different Irrigation Regimes. Journal of agricultural science. 25(1), 1-19.
Allen, R.G., Pereira, L.S., Raes, D. and Smith, M. (1998). Crop evapotranspiration. Guidelines for computing crop water requirements. FAO Irrigation Drainage Paper No.56. Pp. 1-326.
Amiri, S.R., Salimi, K. and Ziaei, S.M. (2021). The effect of deficit irrigation on yield and water use efficiency of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.). Journal of environmental stresses in crop sciences. 14(1), 75-83. (In Farsi)
Asadi-Danalo, A., Ghasemi-Golezani, K., Shafag-Kalvanagh, J. and Bakhshi, J. (2014). Effects of seed quality and water deficit on performance of lentil. Journal of agricultural science and sustainable production. 24(1), 83-94. (In Farsi)
Hosseini, F.S., Nezami, A., Paesa, M. and Hajmohammadnia-Ghalibaf, K. (2011). Effects of supplementary irrigation on yield and yield components of lentil (lens culinaris medik.) cultivars in Mashhad climate. Journal of water and soil. 25(3), 625-633. (In Farsi)
Hussein, R. A., Rashad, R. T., El-Kamar, F. A. and Mohamed, M. S. (2018). The effect of some growth regulators foliar sprayed with the fertilization by Fe and Zn on the yield and quality of lentil grown in sandy soil. Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. 3(2), 1-10.
Kahraman, A., Khan, M.K., Pandey, A. and Dogan, E. (2016). Effect of supplemental irrigation on lentil yield and growth in semi-arid environment. Journal of Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici. 44(1), 237-244.
Katerji, N., Hoorn, J.W., Hamdy, A. and Mastrorlli, M. (2003). Salinity effect on crop development and yield, analysis of salt tolerance according to several classification methods. Journal of agricultural water management. 62, 37-66.
Kakayi, M. (2019). Effect of different levels of irrigation on yield and yield components and its relationship with protein electrophoresis pattern of lentil genotypes. Journal of environmental stresses in crop sciences. 11(4), 817-833. (In Farsi)
Kiani, A.R. and Abyar, N. (2019). Use of saline water for sustainable production of wheat. Journal of water management in agriculture. 6(2), 11-20. (In Farsi)
Mehraban, A. (2017). Effect of foliar application of iron on yield, yield component, and grain protein of lentil crop. Journal of plant environmental physiology.12(45), 27-37. (In Farsi)
Mohammadi, M., Mohammadighaleney, M. and Ebrahimi, K. (2011). Time and local variations of groundwater quality in Qazvin plain. Iranian journal of water research. 5(8), 41-52. (In Farsi)
Molavi, H., Mohammadi, M. and Liaghat, A. (2011). Effect of saline water management during growth period on yield and yield components of maize and soil salinity profile. Journal of irrigation science and engineering. 35(3), 11-18. (In Farsi)
Nezami, A., Bagheri, A., Porsa, H., Zafranieh, M. and Khamadi, N. (2011). Evaluation of cold tolerant lentil genotypes (lens culinaris medik.) in fall planting under supplementary irrigation. Journal of pulses research. 1(2), 49-58. (In Farsi)
Ouji, A., Elbok, S., Mouelhi, M., Younes, M. and Kharrat, M. (2015). Effect of salinity stress on germination of five Tunisian lentil (lens culinaris L.) genotypes. Journal of European scientific. 11(21), 63-75.
Piri, H., Ansari, H. and Faridhosseini, A.R. (2018). Investigation of the irrigation management with saline water on sorghum yield and growth indices. Journal of irrigation sciences and engineering. 40(4), 31-46. (In Farsi)
Ramezani-Etedali, H., Ahmadaali, K., Liaghat, A., Parsinejad, M., Tavakkoli, A.R. and Ababaei, B. (2015). Optimum water allocation between irrigated and rainfed lands in different climatic conditions. Journal of biological forum. 7(1), 1556-1567.
Rashidi, V., Chalabyani, S., Sharifi, M. and Babazadeh, A. (2018). Comparision of lentil landrace genotypes for grain yield and its component under drought stress and the effects of drought and salinity stresses on genotypes at their vegetative stages. Journal of Crop Ecophysiology. 12(1), 89-106. (In Farsi)
Saeidi, R., Soltani, M., Liaghat, A.M. and Sotoodehnia, A. (2019). The effect of salinity on maize yield in various growth stages. Journal of soil and water research. 50(8), 1975-1983. (In Farsi)
Saeidi, R. (2021). Investigation the intra-seasonal sensitivity of maize evapotranspiration to water stress, at different irrigation levels. Journal of water and soil. 35(3), 335-348. (In Farsi)
Saeidi, R., Ramezani-Etedali, H., Sotoodenia, A., Kaviani, A. and Nazari, B. (2021). Salinity and fertility stresses modifies  and readily available water coefficients in maize (Case study: Qazvin region). Journal of irrigation science. 39, 299- 313.
Sandhu, J.S. and Singh, S. (2007). History and origin. In: Yadav S.S. (eds.), Lentil: An ancient crop for modern times. Journal of springer verilog germany. Pp, 1-9.
Saremi, M., Farhadi, B., Maleki, A. and Farasati, M. (2016). Effects of deficit irrigation on yield, yield components and water use efficiency of lentil in Khorramabad. Journal of plant production research. 22(3), 337-342. (In Farsi)
Soltani, M., Liaghat, A.M. and Sotoodehnia, A. (2012). Conjunctive effect of planting date and time of supplementary irrigation on water productivity of lentil in rainfed conditions. Journal of soil and water research. 43(3), 243-248. (In Farsi)
Yasir, T., Khan, A., Skalicky, M., Wasaya, A., Rehmani, M., Sarwar, N., Mubben, K., Aziz, M., Hassan, M., Hassan, F., Iqbal, M., Brestic, M., Islam, M., Danish, S. and Sabagh, A. (2021). Exogenous sodium nitroprusside mitigates salt stress in lentil (lens culinaris medik.) by affecting the growth, yield, and biochemical properties. Journal of molecules. 26(9), 1-12.
Zareabyaneh, H., Heydari, A. and Daneshkar-Arasteh, P. (2020). Evaluation of water management performance in irrigation network of Qazvin plain. Journal of irrigation and water engineering. 10(2), 76-88. (In Farsi)