Soil Evolution Trend of In-situ Soil Developed in a Mountainous Landscape (Case Study: Bandar Village)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 1. Assistant professor of Soil and Water Research Department, Kordestan agricultural and natural resources and education center, AREEO, Sanandaj, Iran

2 2. Professor, Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran


Magnetic susceptibility (MS) is one of the indices used in soil development evaluation. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of soil magnetic susceptibility in study of soil evolution in the Bandar mountainous landscape of Mazandaran province. In order to achieve the objectives of this study, soil taxonomic classes and morphological index were determined after field studies and physicochemical analysis of 56 soil profiles. Some chemical and geochemical indices were determined and magnetic susceptibility in low (χlf) and high (χhf) frequency were measured by Bartington MS2 dual-frequency sensor on topsoil samples. The correlations between soil magnetic susceptibility and soil taxonomic classes, physicochemical properties, and development indices indicated more efficiency of magnetic susceptibility and morphological index in the representation of soil development in this region. The slope of the study area, as well as the presence of a high amount of carbonates, has caused an inverse relationship between geochemical indices and soil taxonomic classes.


Abbaszadeh Afshar, F. Jalalian, A. and Ayoubi, Sh. (2010). Spatial prediction of some physicochemical soil properties and magnetic susceptibility using digital topographic model. Journal of Water and Soil Consrvation, 17 (2), 89-105. (In Farsi)
Ayoubi S, Ahmadi MR, Abdi MR, Abbaszadeh Afshar F (2012) Relationships of 137Cs inventory with magnetic measures of calcareous soils of hilly region in Iran. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 112:45–51
Ayoubi Sh. Amiri, S. and Tajik. S. (2014). Lithogenic and antropogenic impacts on soil surface magnetic susceptibility in an arid region of central Iran. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 60(10): 1467-1483.
Ayoubi, Sh. and Mirsaidi, A. (2018). magnetic susceptibility of Entisols and Aridisols great groups in southern Iran. Geoderma Regional, 15.
Ayoubi, S. and Adman, V. (2019). Iron Mineralogy and Magnetic Susceptibility of Soils Developed on Various Rocks in Western Iran. Clays and Clay Minerals. 67, 217–227. https://
Ayoubi, Sh. and Moazzeni Dehghani, S. (2020). Identifying impacts of land use change on soil redistribution at different slope positions using magnetic susceptibility. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 13: 426.
Barbosa, J. Z., Poggere, G. C., Teixeira, W. W. R., Motta, A. C. V., Prior, S. A. and Curi, N. (2020). Assessing soil contamination in automobile scrap yards by portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and magnetic susceptibility. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 192, 46.
Barbosaa, J. Z., Poggere, G. C.,  Godinho Silva, S. H., Mancini, M.,  Vargas Motta, A. C.,  Melo Marques, J. J. G. and Curi, N. (2021). National-scale spatial variations of soil magnetic susceptibility in Brazil. Jornal of South American Earth Sciences, 108.
Baumann, F. Schmidt, K. Dörfer, C. He, J. S. Scholten, T. and Kühn, P. (2014). Pedogenesis, permafrost, substrate and topography: plot and landscape scale interrelations of weathering processes on the central-eastern Tibetan Plateau. Geoderma, 226, 300-315.
Bétard, F. (2012). Spatial variation of soil weathering processes in a tropical mountain environment: The Baturité massif and its pediment (Ceará, NE Brazil). Catena, 93, 18-28.
Blume, H. P. and Schwertmann, U. (1969). Genetic evaluation of profile distribution of Al, Fe and Mn oxides. Soil Science Society of America, 33: 438-444.
Blundell, A. Dearing, J. A. Boyle, J. F. and Hannam, J. A. (2009). Controlling factors for the spatial variability of soil magnetic susceptibility across England and Wales. Earth-Science Reviews, 95, 158-188.
Bouhsane, N., and Bouhlassa, S. (2018). Assessing Magnetic Susceptibility Profiles of Topsoils under Different Occupations. International Journal of Geophysics, 2018, 9481405.
Brady, N. C. and Weil, R. R. (1999). The nature and properties of soils. 13th edition, Chapter 1.
Burt, R. (2004). Soil survey laboratory methods manual. NRCS, USDA, Soil survey investigation report. No: 42, Version 4.0.
César de Mello, D., Demattê, J.A.M., Silvero, N.E.Q., Di Raimo, L. A.D.L., Poppiel, R.R., Mello, F.A.O., Souza, A.B., Safanelli, J.L., Resende, M.E.B., & Rizzo, R. (2020). Soil magnetic susceptibility and its relationship with naturally occurring processes and soil attributes in pedosphere, in a tropical environment. Geoderma, 372, 114364.
Cao, Z. Zhang, K. Hu, J. Yang, Z. and Zhou, Z. (2021). Linking rocky destrification to soil erosion by investigating changes in soil magnetic susceptibility profiles on karst slopes. Geoderma, 389.
Chittleborough, D. J. (1991). Indices of weathering foe soils and paleosols formed on silicate rocks. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 38, 115-120.
Costa, E. U. C. D., Araujo, J. K. S., Neves, L. V. D. M. W., Araújo Filho, J. C. D., Sousa, J. E. S. D., Corrˆea, M. M., Ribeiro Filho, M. R. and Souza Júnior, V. S. D. (2019). Genesis and classification of Nitisols from volcano-sedimentary lithology in Northeastern Brazil. Revista Brasileria de Ciencia do Solo, 43.
Dankoub, Z. Ayoubi, S. Khademi, H. and Lu, Sh-G. (2012). Spatial Distribution of Magnetic Properties and Selected Heavy Metals in Calcareous Soils as Affected by Land Use in the Isfahan Region, Central Iran. Pedosphere, 22: 33-47. 
Dearing, J.A, Hay, K. L., Baban, S.M.J., Huddleston, A.S., Wellington, E.M.H., and Loveland, P.J. (1996). Magnetic susceptibility of soil: an evaluation of conflicting theories using a national data set. Geophysical Journal International, 127(3), 728–734.
Dearing J.A. 1999. Environmental magnetic susceptibility, using the Bartington MS2 System. Kenilworth, UK: Chi Publ. 54 pp.
De Jong, E. Nestor, P. A. and Pennock, D. J. (1998). The use of magnetic susceptibility to measure long-term soil redistribution. Catena, 32: 23-35.
De Jong, E. Kozak, L. M. and Rostat, H. P. W. (1999). Effects on perant matterial and climate on the magnetic susceptibbility of Saskatchewan soils. Journal of the Soil Science, 80: 135-142.
Ding, Z., Zhang, Z., Li, Y., Zhang, L. and Zhang, K. (2020). Characteristics of magnetic susceptibility on cropland and pastureland slopes in an area influenced by both wind and water erosion and implications for soil redistribution patterns. Soil and Tillage Research, 199.
Enjavinejad, M., Owliaie, H. R., Adhami, E., 2017. Study of magnetic susceptibility of the soils of a toposequence case study: Beshar plain, Kohgilouye Province. Journal of water and soil. Vol. 31, No. 2:478-489. (In Farsi)
Fedo, C. M. Nesbitt, H. W. and Young, G. M. (1995). Unraveling the effects of potassium metasomatism in sedimentary rocks and paleosols, with implication for paleoweathering conditions and provenance. Geology, 23: 921-924.
Feng, Z. D. and Johnson, W. C. (1995). Factors affecting the magnetic susceptibility of a loess-soil sequence, Barton County, Kansas, USA. Catena, 24: 25-37. 
Feng, Z. D. (1997). Geochemical characteristics of a loess-soil sequence in central Kansas. Soil Sciene Society of American Journal, 61: 534–541.
Fine, P. Singer, M. J. and Southward, R. J. (1989). Role of pedogenesis in distribution of magnetic susceptibility in two California toposequence. Geoderma, 44: 287-306.
Gabler, R. E. Petersen, J. F. and Trapasso, L. M. (2006). Soils and soil development. Essentials of physical geography, 8TH Edition. P: 330-360.
Gee, G. W. and Bauder, J. W. (1986). Particle-size analysis, in: KluteA. (Eds.), Methods of soil analysis, Part 1. Physical and Mineralogical Methods, 2nd ed. Agronomy, 9: 383-411.
Graham, R. C. and O'Geen, A. T. (2010). Soil mineralogy trends in California landscapes. Geoderma, 154: 418-437.
Grison, H. Petrovsky, E. Hanzlikova, H. (2021). Assessing anthropogenic contribution in highly magnetic forest soils developed on basalts using magnetic susceptibility and concentration of elements. Catena, 206.
Han, X., Tomaszewski, E. J., Sorwat, J., Pan, Y., Kappler, A. and Byrne, J. M. (2020). Effect of microbial biomass and humic acids on abiotic and biotic magnetite formation. Environmental Science and Technology, 54 (7): 4121–4130.
Harden, J. W., 1982. A quantitative index of soil development from field descripions: examples from a chronosequence in central California. Geoderma, 28: 1-28.
Hanesch, M. and Scholger, R. (2005). The influence of soil type on the magnetic susceptibility measured through soil profiles. Geophysical Journal International, 161: 50-56.
Hanesch, M., Rantitsch, G., Hemetsberger, S., and Scholger, R. (2007). Lithological and pedological influences on the magnetic susceptibility of soil: Their consideration in magnetic pollution mapping. Science of the Total Environment, 382(2–3), 351–363.
Hällberg, L. P. Stevens, T. Almqvist, B. Snowball, I. Wiers, S. Költringer, C. Lu, H. Zhang, H. and Lin, Z. (2020). Magnetic susceptibility parameters as proxies for desert sediment provenance. Aeolian Research, 46.
Hosseini, S. S., Esfandiarpour, B., Farpoor, M. H., Karimi, A. R., 2015. Comparision of different soil development indices along Kerman-Baft transect. Journal of management and sustainable production, 5(2). (In Farsi)
Hu, Z. F. Xu, L. F. Pan, Y. and Shen, M. N. (2009). Influence of the aging of Fe oxides on the decline of magnetic susceptibility of the Tertiary red cley in the Chinese Loess Plateau. Quaternary International, 209: 22-30.
Hu, P., Heslop, D., Viscarra Rossel, R. A., Roberts, A. P. and Zhao, X. (2020). Continental-scale magnetic properties of surficial Australian soils. Earth-Science Reviews, 203, 103028.
Jordanova, N. (2016) Soil Magnetism: Applications in Pedology, Environmental Science and Agriculture, Elsevier, Netherlands, 445 p.
Karimi, A. and Khademi, H. (2012). Effects of parent materials, gypsum and carbonates on the magnetic susceptibility of soils in southern Mashhad. Journal of Water and Soil Science, 16(61): 247-260. (In Farsi)
Karimi, R. Ayoui, Sh. Jalalian, A. Sheikh-Hosseini, A. R. and Afyuni, M. (2011). Relationship between magnetic susceptibility and heavy metals in urban topsoils in the arid region of Isfehan, central Iran. Journal of Applied Geophysics, 74: 1-7.
Kunze, G. W. and Dixon, J. B. (1986). Method of soil analysis, Part 1. Physical and Mineralogical Methods. American Society of Agronomy.
Lima, P. L. T., Silva, M. L. N., Quinton, J., Armstrong, A., Inda, A. V., Batista, P. V. G., Poggere, G. C. and Curi, N. (2020). Tracing the origin of reservoir sediments using magnetic properties in Southeastern Brazil. Semina Ciencias Agrarias, 41: 847–864
Lu, Sh-G. Zhu, L. and Yu, J-Y. (2012). Mineral magnetic properties of Chinese paddy soils and its pedogenic implications. Catena, 93, 9-17.
Maher, B. A. (1986). Characterization of soils by mineral magnetic measurements. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 42: 76-92.
Maier, G. Scholger, R. and Schon, J. (2006). The influence of soil moisture on magnetic susceptibility measurements. Journal of Applied Geophysics.
Magiera, T., Łukasik, A., Zawadzki, J., & Rösler, W. (2019). Magnetic susceptibility as indicator of anthropogenic disturbances in forest topsoil: A review of magnetic studies carried out in Central European forests. Ecological Indicators, 106, 105518.
Marjovi, A. Razavi, Z. and Behravesh, S. (2017). Application of soil magnetic susceptibility for monitoring bioavailable metals pollution. Iranian Journal of Soil Research, 31(1): 117-130. (In Farsi)
Marsan, F. A., Bain, D. C., Duthie, D. M. L., 1988. Parent material uniformity and degree of weathering in a soil chronosequence, Northwestern Italy. Catena. 15, 507-517.
Mokhtari Karchegani, P. Ayoubi, S. Lu, Sh-G. and Honarju, N. (2011). Use of magnetic measures to assess soil redistribution following deforestation in hilly region. Journal of Applied Geophysics, 75: 227-236.
Moradi Nasab, V., Hojati, S., Landi, A. and Faz Cano, A. (2020). Comparing soil development in two topo-sequences with different parent materials in part of Karoon 3 Basin, East of Khuzestan Province. Iranian Journal of Soil and Water Research, 52(1): 143-159. (In Farsi)
Mullins, C. E. (1977).  Magnetic susceptibility of the soil and its significance in soil science: A review. Journal of Soil Science., 28: 223 – 246.
Nesbitt, H. W. and Young, G. M. (1982). Early Proterozoic climate and plate motions inferred from major element chemistry of lutites. Nature, 299: 715-717.
Nie, J. King, J. W. and Fang, X. (2007). Enhancement mechanisms of magnetic susceptibility in the Chinese red-clay sequence. Geophysical Research, 34, L19705.
Oliaei, H. R. Adhami, E. Jafari, S. Rajaei, M. and Ghasemi Fasaei, R. (2009). Distribution of magnetic susceptibility in relation to iron compounds in some selected soils of Fars province. Iranian Journal of Soil Reasearch, 23 (2): 191-204. (In Farsi)
Ozaytekin, H. H. Mutlu, H. H. and Dedeoglu, M. (2012). Soil formation on a calcic chronosequence of Ancient Lake Konya in Central Anatolia, Turkey. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 76:66–74.
Parker, A. (1970). An index of weathering for silicate rock. Geological Magazine, 10: 501-504.
Price, J. R. and Velbel, M. A. (2003). Chemical weathering indices applied to weathering profiles developed on heterogeneous felsic metamorphic parent rocks. Chemical Geology, 202: 397-416.
Quijano, L. Gaspar, L. Lopez-Vicente, M. Chaparr, A. E. Machin, J. and Navas, A. (2011). Soil magnetic susceptibility and surface topographic characteristics in cultivated soils. Latinmag Letters, Volume 1, Special Issue, D10, 1-6. Proceeding Tandil, Argentina.
Rachwał, M., Kardel, K., Magiera, T. and Bens, O. (2017). Application of magnetic susceptibility in assessment of heavy metal contamination of Saxonian soil (Germany) caused by industrial dust deposition. Geoderma, 295: 10–21.
Ramos, P. V., Inda, A. V., Barron, V., Teixeira, D. D. B. and Marques Júnior, J. (2020). Magnetic susceptibility in the prediction of soil attributes in southern Brazil. Soil Sciene Society of American Journal.
Rhoto, F. E. Bigham, J. M. Norton, L. D. and Smeck, N. E. (1981). Controbution of magnetite to oxalate-extractable iron in soils and sediments from the Maumee River Basin of Ohio. Soil Science Society of American Journal, 45: 645-649.
Rocha Filho, P. Antuenes, F. S. and Falcao, M. F. G. (1985). Quantitative influence of the weathering upon the mechanical properties of a young gneiss residual soil. First Int. Conf. Geomech. Trop. Lateritic Saprolitic Soil Brasilia, 1, 281-294.
Rochette, P., Jackson, M. and Aubourg, C., 1992. Rock magnetism and the interpretation of magnetic susceptibility. Reviews of Geophysics, 30.
Ruxton, B. P. (1968). Measure of the degree of chemical weathring of rocks. Journal of Geology, 69: 534-571.
Santoso, N.A., Iqbal, M., Ekawati, G. and Firdaus, R. (2019). Study of pH and Magnetic Susceptibility to Fertility Rate of Agricultural Soil around Institut Teknologi Sumatera, Lampung, Indonesia. IOP Conf. Ser. Environmental Earth Sciences, 258, 12001.
Sarmast, M., Farpoor, M. H., & Esfandiarpour Boroujeni, I. (2017). Magnetic susceptibility of soils along a lithotoposequence in southeast Iran. Catena, 156, 252–262.
Schaetzl, R. J., & Anderson, S. (2005). Soils: Genesis and Geomorphology. Cambridge University Press.
Silva Filho, L. A., Ker, J. C., Fontes, M. P. F., Camˆelo, D. D. L., Corrˆea, M. M., Cavalcante, L. C. D. and Guimar˜ aes, L. D. M. (2019). Mineralogical evolution of magnetic Rhodic Oxisols under different lithological influences in Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo, 43.
Siqueira D.S., Marques J. Pereirab G.T. Teixeiraa D.B. and Vasconcelosc V. 2015. Detailed mapping unit design based on soil–landscape relation and spatial variability of magnetic susceptibility and soil color. Catena, 135: 145- 162.
Singer, M. J. and Fine, P. (1989). Pedogenic factors affecting magnetic susceptibility of northern California soils. Soil Sciene Society of American Journal, 53: 1119-1127.
Soil Survey Staff, (2014). Keys to Soil Taxonomy12th ed. US Department of Agriculture, Natural Resourses Conservation Service.
Sparks, D. L. Page, A. L. Helmke, P. A. Leoppert, R. H. Soltanpour, P. N. Tabatabai, M. A. Johnston, G. T. and Summer, M. E. (1996). Method of soil analysis. Siol Science Society of American Journal, Madison, Wisconsin.
Torabi, H. and Eghbal, M. K. (2003). Study of soil development using magnetic susceptibility in soils next to Sefidrud River in Gilan province. Journal of Water and Soil Science, 16 (2): 205-213. (In Farsi)
Singer, M. J. Fine, P. (1989). Pedogenic factors affecting magnetic susceptibility of norhern California soils. Soil Sciene Society of American Journal, 1119-1127.
Thiry M. P. Fernandes, A. Milnes and Raynal, J. P. (2014). Driving forces for the weathering and alteration of silica in the regolith: Implications for studies of prehistoric flint tools. Earth-Science Reviews, 136:141-154.
Torrent, J. Liu, Q. S. and Barron, V. (2010). Magnetic susceptibility changes in relation to pedogenesis in a xeralf chronosequence in northwestern Spain. Eouropean journal of soil science, 61: 161-173.
United States Department of Agriculture, 2012. Field book for describing and sampling soils. National Soil Survey Center. Natural Resource Conservation Service.
Yu, J. Y., Lu, S. G., 1991. Soil Magnetism. Jingxi Science and Technology Press, Nanchang.
Valaee, M., S. Ayoubi, F. Khormali, S. G. Lu and H. R. Karimzadeh, 2016. Using magnetic susceptibility to discriminate between soil moisture regimes in selected loess and loess-like soils in northern Iran. Journal of Applied Geophysics, 127: 23-30.
Vogt, T. (1927). Sulitjelmafeltes geology petrografi. Norg. Geol. Unders. 121, 1-560 (in Norwegian, with English abstract).
Walker, A. L., 1983. The effects of magnetic on oxalate and dithionite extractable iron. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 47:1022-1026.
Walkey, A. and Black, I. A. (1934). An examination of Degtiareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid in soil analysis. 1. Experimental. Soil Science Society of American Journal, 79: 459-465.