Assessing Uptake Indices and Clean Up Time of Lead in Contaminated Soil Using White Horseradish (Raphanus sativus cv. Longipinnatus)

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University Of Guilan, Rasht, Iran.


Soil contamination with heavy metals in addition to reducing the production and quality of agricultural crops enters the human body through the food chain. The objective of this study was to investigate the adsorption capability and clean up time required for phytoremediation of Pb-contaminated soils by white horseradish. For this purpose, a randomized block experimental design with five treatments of 10 (control), 150, 300, 600 and 900 mg Pb/kg soil and three replicates was established in the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan. Plants were harvested when fully developed. The lead concentrations in the soil, roots and shoots were measured afterwards. TF and BCF indices, clean up time and uptake rate of Pb for 5%, 10%, and 15% of contamination were then calculated. The results indicated that by increasing the lead concentration, plant dry matter decreased significantly. Also, lead accumulation occurred mostly in roots rather than in shoots. The maximum lead concentration in the root and shoot in the 900 mg/kg treatment were 191.9 and 28.56 mg/kg, respectively. The variation range of TF and BCF indices were 0.15 to 0.55 and 0.22 to 2.86, respectively. Results further revealed that it takes 8 years to remediate 15% of Pb when soil Pb contamination is 300 mg/kg treatment. Generally, with increasing lead concentration, the time needed for phytoextraction is also increased. However, since the complete removal of heavy metals does not need to clean up them from the soil, phytoremediation is a suitable method for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. Due to high biomass and capability of lead accumulation of white horseradish, this plant might be used to remediate lead from moderate Pb-contaminated soils.


Abdollahi, S. and Golchin, A. (2018). Evaluate Ability of Uptake and Translocation of Lead in Three Varieties of Cabbage. Iranian Journal of Soil and Water Research, 49(1), 145-158. (In Farsi).
Alipour, N., Homaee, M., Asadi Kapourchal, S. and Mazhari, M. (2015). Assessing Chenopodium album L. to Tolerate and Phytoextract Lead from Heavy Metal Contaminated Soils. Environmental Sciences, 13(1), 105-112. (In Farsi).
Arias, J. A., Peralta-Videa, J. R., Ellzey, J. T., Ren, M., Viveros, M. N. and Gardea-Torresdey, J. L. (2010). Effects of Glomus deserticola inoculation on Prosopis: enhancing chromium and lead uptake and translocation as confirmed by X-ray mapping, ICP-OES and TEM techniques. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 68(2), 139-148.‏
Asadi Kapourchal, S. O., Asadi Kapourchal, S., Pazira, E. and Homaee, M. (2009). Assessing radish (Raphanus sativus L.) potential for phytoremediation of Lead- contaminated soils resulting from air pollution. Soil plant and environment Journal, 55(5), 202-206.
Asadi Kapourchal, S. and Jalali, V. R. (2021). Phytoremediation and estimation of optimal clean up time of lead contaminated soils using Portulaca oleracea L. and Amaranthus retroflexus. Environment and Water Engineering, 7(1), 25–37. (In Farsi).
Bauycos, G. J. (1962). Hydrometer methods improved for making particle size of soils. Agronomy Journal, 56, 464-465.‏
Bose, S., Jain, A., Rai, V. and Ramanathan, A. L. (2008). Chemical fractionation and translocation of heavy metals in Canna indica L. grown on industrial waste amended soil. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 160(1), 187-193.‏
Cameselle, C. and Gouveia, S. (2019). Phytoremediation of mixed contaminated soil enhanced with electric current. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 361, 95-102.‏
Cui, Y. J., Zhu, Y. G., Zhai, R. H., Chen, D. Y., Huang, Y. Z., Qiu, Y. and Liang, J. Z. (2004). Transfer of metals from soil to vegetables in an area near a smelter in Nanning, China. Environment international, 30(6), 785-791.‏
Daud, M. K., Variath, M. T., Ali, S., Najeeb, U., Jamil, M., Hayat, Y., Dawooda, M., Khand, M. I., Zaffar, M., Cheemad, S. A. and Tong, X. H. (2009). Cadmium-induced ultramorphological and physiological changes in leaves of two transgenic cotton cultivars and their wild relative. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 168(2-3), 614-625.‏
Dehghani, S., Naderi Khorasgani, M., Mohammadi, J. and Karimi, A. (2021). Assessment of Heavy Metals Contamination of Soil Particle Size Fractions in Different Land Uses of Baghan Watershed, Bushehr province, Iran. Iranian Journal of Soil and Water Research, 52(7), 1765-1778. (In Farsi).
Dodangeh, H., Rahimi, G., Fallah, M. and Ebrahimi, E. (2018). Investigation of heavy metal uptake by three types of ornamental plants as affected by application of organic and chemical fertilizers in contaminated soils. Environmental Earth Sciences, 77(12), 473.‏
Eisazadeh, S., Kapourchal, S. A., Homaee, M., Noorhosseini, S. A. and Damalas, C. A. (2019). Chive (Allium schoenoprasum L.) response as a phytoextraction plant in cadmium-contaminated soils. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26(1), 152-160.‏
Glick, B. R. (2003). Phytoremediation: synergistic use of plants and bacteria to clean up the environment. Biotechnology advances, 21(5), 383-393.‏
Golchin, A., Mosalla, L. and Khadem Moghadam Igdelou, N. (2020). Investigation of Cadmium Uptake and Transfer Ability of Three Ornamental Plants for Remediation of Cadmium Contaminated Soils. Iranian Journal of Soil and Water Research, 50(10), 2453-2464. (In Farsi).
Grossman, R. B. and Reinsch, T. G. (2002). 2.1 Bulk density and linear extensibility. Methods of soil analysis: Part 4 physical methods, 5, 201-228.‏
Gupta, P.  K. (2000). Soil, Plant, Water and Fertilizer Analysis. Agrobios, New Dehli, India.
Hamzenejad Taghlidabad, R., Khodaverdiloo, H., Wenzel, W. W. and Rezapour, S. (2014). Growth and Cd accumulation of two halophytes and a non-halophyte grown in a non-saline and a saline soil with different Cd levels. Chemistry and Ecology, 30(8), 743-754.
Hassanpour Asil, M., Dehestani Ardakani, M. Rabiee M. (2013). The effect of seed density and plant distance on the yield and growth components of Radish (Rhaphanus sativus cv. Longipinatus) as second culture in paddy field. Journal of Horticultural Science, 2(2), 95-102. (In Farsi).
Jaskulak, M., Grobelak, A. and Vandenbulcke, F. (2020). Modelling assisted phytoremediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals–Main opportunities, limitations, decision making and future prospects. Chemosphere, 249, 126196.‏
Jiang, W. and Liu, D. (2010). Pb-induced cellular defense system in the root meristematic cells of Allium sativum L. BMC Plant Biology, 10(1), 40.‏
Karimi, A., Khodaverdiloo, H. and Rasouli Sadaghiani, M.H. (2017). Characterisation of growth and biochemical response of Onopordum acanthium L. under lead stress as affected by microbial inoculation. Chemistry and Ecology, 33(10), 963-976.
Karimi, A., Khodaverdiloo, H. and Rasouli-Sadaghiani, M.H. (2018). Microbial-enhanced phytoremediation of lead contaminated calcareous soil by Centaurea cyanus L. Clean-Soil Air Water, 46(2), 1700665.
Khan, A. R., Waqas, M., Ullah, I., Khan, A. L., Khan, M. A., Lee, I. J. and Shin, J. H. (2017). Culturable endophytic fungal diversity in the cadmium hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. and their role in enhancing phytoremediation. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 135, 126-135.‏
Khodaverdiloo, H. and Hamzenejad Taghlidabad, R. (2014). Phytoavailability and potential transfer of Pb from a salt-affected soil to Atriplex verucifera, Salicornia europaea and Chenopodium album. Chemistry and Ecology, 30(3), 216-226.
Khodaverdiloo, H., Han, F. X., Hamzenejad Taghlidabad, R., Karimi, A., Moradi, N. and Kazery, j. A. (2020). Potentially toxic element contamination of arid and semi-arid soils and its phytoremediation. Arid Land Research and Management, 34(4), 361391.
Khodaverdiloo, H. and Homaee, M., (2008). Modeling Phytoremediation of Soils Polluted with Cadmium and Lead. Journal of Water and Soil Science, 11 (42), 417-426. (In Farsi).
Khudsar, T., Soh, W. Y. and Iqbal, M. (2000). Morphological and anatomical variations of Cajanus cajan (Linn.) huth raised in cadmium-rich soil. Journal of Plant Biology, 43(3), 149-157.‏
Kumar, P. N., Dushenkov, V., Motto, H. and Raskin, I. (1995). Phytoextraction: the use of plants to remove heavy metals from soils. Environmental science and technology, 29(5), 1232-1238.‏
Liu, D., Li, S., Islam, E., Chen, J. R., Wu, J. S., Ye, Z. Q., Peng, D. L., Yan, W. B. and Lu, K. P. (2015). Lead accumulation and tolerance of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) seedlings: applications of phytoremediation. Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE B, 16(2), 123-130.‏
Maestri, E., Marmiroli, M., Visioli, G. and Marmiroli, N. (2010). Metal tolerance and hyperaccumulation: costs and trade-offs between traits and environment. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 68(1), 1-13.‏
Mahar, A., Wang, P., Ali, A., Awasthi, M. K., Lahori, A. H., Wang, Q., Li, R. and Zhang, Z. (2016). Challenges and opportunities in the phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated soils: a review. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 126, 111-121.‏
Meyers, D. E., Auchterlonie, G. J., Webb, R. I. and Wood, B. (2008). Uptake and localisation of lead in the root system of Brassica juncea. Environmental Pollution, 153(2), 323-332.‏
Mohamadipour, F. and Asadi Kapourchal, S. (2013). Assessing land cress potential for phytoextraction of cadmium from Cdcontaminated soils. Water and Soil Resources Conservation, 2(2), 25-35. (In Farsi).
Pais, I. and Jones Jr, J. B. (1997). The handbook of trace elements. CRC Press.‏
Parseh, I., Teiri, H., Hajizadeh, Y. and Ebrahimpour, K. (2018). Phytoremediation of benzene vapors from indoor air by Schefflera arboricola and Spathiphyllum wallisii plants. Atmospheric Pollution Research, 9(6), 1083-1087.‏
Peris, M., Micó, C., Recatalá, L., Sánchez, R. and Sánchez, J. (2007). Heavy metal contents in horticultural crops of a representative area of the European Mediterranean region. Science of the Total Environment, 378(1-2), 42-48.‏
Rasouli-Sadaghiani, M. H., Karimi, H., Ashrafi Saeidlou, S. and Khodaverdiloo, H. (2019). The Effect of Humic Acid on the Phytoremediation Efficiency of Pb in the Contaminated Soils by Wormwood Plant (Artemicia absantium). Journal of Water and Soil Science (Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources), 22(4), 261-278. (In Farsi).
Rezai, H. and Parsa, N. (2021). Removal of Pb Ions from Aqueous Solutions Using Melamine Modified Nanographene Oxide. Environment and Water Engineering, 7(3), 422–432. (In Farsi).
Rhoades, J. D. (1996). Salinity: Electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids. In D. L. Sparks (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 3 Chemical Methods, (pp. 417-435).‏
Sahihi, T., Jafari, M., Javadi, S. A. and Tahmoures, M. (2020). Investigation of Phytoremediation Ability of Rangeland Species in Soils Contaminated with Copper and Manganese. Iranian Journal of Soil and Water, 51(6), 1593-1604. (In Farsi).
Sarwar, N., Imran, M., Shaheen, M. R., Ishaque, W., Kamran, M. A., Matloob, A. and Hussain, S. (2017). Phytoremediation strategies for soils contaminated with heavy metals: modifications and future perspectives. Chemosphere, 171, 710-721.‏
Schnoor , J.  L. (1997). Phytoremediation. GWRTAC (Ground-Water Remediation Technologies Analysis Center) Technology Evaluation Report TE-98-01, P.150.
Sharma, P. and Dubey, R. S. H. (2005). Lead toxicity in Plants. Plant Physiology, 17, 35-52.
Steliga, T. and Kluk, D. (2020). Application of Festuca arundinacea in phytoremediation of soils contaminated with Pb, Ni, Cd and petroleum hydrocarbons. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 194, 110409.‏
Thawornchaisit, U. and Polprasert, C. (2009). Evaluation of phosphate fertilizers for the stabilization of cadmium in highly contaminated soils. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 165(1-3), 1109-1113.‏
Thomas, G. W. (1996). Soil pH and soil acidity. Methods of soil analysis: part 3 chemical methods, (PP. 475-490).‏
Walkley, A. and Black, I. A. (1934). An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter, and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil science, 37(1), 29-38.‏
Wu, F. Y., Ye, Z. H., Wu, S. C. and Wong, M. H. (2007). Metal accumulation and arbuscular mycorrhizal status in metallicolous and nonmetallicolous populations of Pteris vittata L. and Sedum alfredii Hance. Planta, 226(6), 1363-1378.‏
Xin-Xian, L., Yu-Gang, Z., Dai, J. and Qixing, Z. (2009). Zinc, cadmium and lead accumulation and characteristics of rhizosphere microbial population associated with hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance under natural conditions. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology, 82(4), 460-467.‏
Yang, W., Li, H., Zhang, T., Sen, L. and Ni, W. (2014). Classification and identification of metal-accumulating plant species by cluster analysis. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 21(18), 10626-10637.‏
Yanqun, Z., Yuan, L., Schvartz, C., Langlade, L. and Fan, L. (2004). Accumulation of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn in plants and hyperaccumulator choice in Lanping lead–zinc mine area, China. Environment International, 30(4), 567-576.‏
Zhang, X., Zhang, Sh, Xu, X., Li , T., Gong, G., Jia, Y., Li , Y. and Deng, L. (2010). Tolerance and accumulation characteristics of cadmium in Amaranthus hybridus L. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 180, 303-308.