Investigation of Transplanting and Direct Cultivation of Rice in terms of Yield and Yield Parameters under Different Irrigation Systems

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Irrigation and Drainage, Department of Water and Soil,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.

2 Department of water Engineering, Department of Water and Soil,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran

3 Golestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and education Center, AREEO, Gorgan, Iran.

4 Golestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, AREEO, Gorgan, Iran.

5 Golestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Gorgan, Iran.


Rice is one of the most important crops in the world and after wheat has the second place in terms of annual production. Considering the importance of yield per unit area in agriculture, this study aimed to investigate the effect of direct cultivation and transplanting on yield and yield components of rice under different irrigation systems as split plot based on randomized complete block design at the Agricultural Research Station of Golestan province in 2019 and 2020. According to the results, there was a significant difference in terms of irrigation and planting method for all studied traits. The results of mean comparison of cultivation method showed that the highest and lowest amount of grain yield were obtained for the treatments of puddled transplanted and direct seeding, which were equal to 7506 and 4284 kg/ha, respectively. Also, according to the results of mean comparison of irrigation method, the highest grain yield was 6899 kg/ha, which was obtained for the permanent flood irrigation system, and there was a significant difference with other treatments in the level of 5% probability of LSD test. Grain yield had a positive and significant correlation with harvest index, plant height, number of fertile tillers, panicle length and number of full grains per panicle equal to 0.89, 0.87, 0.75, 0.53 and 0.73, respectively and had a negative and significant correlation with the number of empty grains per panicle equal to 0.81. According to the results, sprinkler irrigation system had the lowest values in terms of number of full grains per panicle, number of fertile tillers, panicle length and consequently grain yield compared to other irrigation treatments. Also, transplanting cultivation methods performed better than direct seeding cultivation method in terms of yield and yield components.


Babar, M., Khan, A.A., Arif, A., Zafar, Y. and Arif, M. (2007). Path analysis of some leaf and panicle traits affecting grain yield in doubled haploid lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.). J. Agric. Res., 45(4):245-252.
Bansal, R., Sharma N., Soman, P., Singh, S., Bhardwaj, A.K., Pandiaraj, T. and Bhardwaj, R.K. (2018). On-Farm Drip Irrigation in Rice for Higher Productivity and Profitability in Haryana, India. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 7(2): 506-512.
Belder, P., Bouman, B.A.M., Cabangon, R., Guoan, L., Quilang, E.J.P., Yuanhua, L., Spiertz, J.H.J. and Tuong, T.P. (2004). Effect of water-saving irrigation on rice yield and water use in typical lowland conditions in Asia. Agricultural Water Management, 65 (3): 193-210.
Belder, P., Bouman, B.A.M., Spiertz, J.H.J., Peng, S., Castaneda, A.R. and Visperas, R.M. (2005). Crop performance, nitrogen and water use in flooded and aerobic rice. Plant Soil, 273:167–182.
Ben Hassen, M., Monaco, F., Facchi, A., Romani, M., Valè, G. and Sali, G. (2017). Economic Performance of Traditional and Modern Rice Varieties under Different Water Management Systems. Sustainability, p.p:10.
Bouman, B.A.M., and Tuong, T.P. (2001). Field Water Management to Save Water and Increase its Productivity in Irrigated Lowland Rice. Agricultural Water Management, 49, 11-30.
Chauhan, B. S. and Johnson, D. E. (2010). Implications of narrow crop row spacing and delayed Echinochloacolona and Echinochloa crus-galli emergence for weed growth and crop yield loss in aerobic rice. Field Crops Research. 117: 177-182.F.A.O. 2015. Statistical Pocketbook. World Food and Agriculture. Rome, Italy.
Dastan, S., Noormohamadi, Gh., Madani, H., Ebrahimi, M. and Yasari, E. (2016). Investigation of Growth and Phenology of Main Crop and Ratoon of Rice Cultivars in Differents Cropping Systems. Plant Production Technology, 16(1): 81-101.  (In Farsi)
Ebrahimi Rad, H., Babazadeh, H., Amiri, A. and Sedqi, H. (2018). Effect of planting density and irrigation management on yield and yield components of rice in Kushal Lahijan region, Guilan province. Iranian Journal of Soil and Water Research, 49 (2): 377-383. (In Farsi)
F.A.O. 2015. Statistical Pocketbook. World Food and Agriculture. Rome, Italy.
Gill, M.S., and Singh, M. P. (2008). Grain yield and water productivity of direct seeded basmati rice (Oryza sativa) under various seed rates, weed control and irrigation schedules. Environ. and Eco. 26: 594-97.
Iftekharddaula, K.M., K. Akter, M.S.H.K. Fatema and Badshah, A. Badshah. (2002). Genetic divergence,  characterassociation and selection criteria in irrigated rice. Biological Science, 2(4): 243-246.
Ivani, A., Safari, M. and Hedayatipour, A. (2014). Comparison of direct planting methods of germinated rice (machine and manual) with transplanting. Journal of Agricultural Machinery, 4(1): 108-115. (In Farsi)  
Jehangir, W.A, Turral, H. and Masih, I. (2004). Water productivity of rice crop in irrigated areas. Journal of Crop Production, 4: 1-22.
Karimi Fard, M., Zakerinia,  M., Kiani, A.R. and Feyz Bakhsh,  M.T. (2020). The Effect of Trickle and Sprinkler Irrigation Systems on Yield and Water Productivity of Rice in Transplanting and Direct Cultivation Methods. Journal of Water and Soil, 34 (5): 1019-1032. (In Farsi)  
Kaur, J. and Singh, A. (2017). Direct Seeded Rice :Prospects, Problems Constraints and Researchable Issues in India. Current Agriculture Research Journal, Vol. 5(1), 13-32.
Kruzhilin, I.P., Dubenok, N.N., Ganiev, M.A., Ovchinnikov, A.S., Melikhov, V.V., Abdou, N.M., Rodin, K.A. and Fomin, S.D. (2017). MODE OF RICE DRIP IRRIGATION. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 12(24): 7118-7123.
Kumar, V. and Ladha, J.K. (2011). Direct-seeding of rice: Recent developments and future research needs. International Rice Research Institute, India office, Pusa, New Delhi, India. Advances in Agronomy, 111: 297-413.
Limouchi, K., Yarnia, M., Siyadat, A., Rashidi, V., and Guilani, A. (2018). Study of Regression Analysis of Rice Physiological Indices in Different Growth Stages under Khuzestan Condition. Journal of Crop Breeding, 10(26):95-103. (In Farsi)   
Liu, H., Saddam Hussain, H., Zheng, M., Peng, S., Huang, J., Cui, K. and Lixiao Nie, L. (2015). Dry direct-seeded rice as an alternative to transplanted-flooded rice in Central China. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 35:285–294
Mahajan, G., Chauhan, B.S., Timsina, J., Singh, P.P. and Singh, K. (2012). Crop performance and water- and nitrogen-use efficiencies in dry-seeded rice in response to irrigation and fertilizer amounts in northwest India. Field Crops Research, 134: 59–70.
Mir Abolghasemi, S.A.M., Ghobadi Nia, M., Ghasemi, A.R. and Annoryemamzadehe, M.R. (2016). Influence of underground irrigation and irrigation management on growth characteristics and yield components of rice in arid and semiarid region. Water and Soil, 31(2): 411-421. (In Farsi)
Naresh, R.K., Misra, A.K. and Singh, S.P. (2013). Assessment of Direct Seeded and Transplanting Methods of Rice Cultivars in the Western Part of Uttar Pradesh. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Business Management, Vol.1 Issue, pg. 1-8
National Statistics Portal. 2013. Economic, social and cultural report of Golestan province. Available at .http: // (In Farsi)
Nie, L., Peng, S., Chen, M., Shah, F., Huang, j., Cui, K. and Xiang, J. (2012). Aerobic rice for water saving agriculture, a review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 32(2): 411-418.
Patel, D.P., Das, A., Munda, G.C., Ghosh, P.K., Bordoloi, S.J. and Kumar, M. (2010). Evaluation of yield and physiological attributes of high yielding rice varieties under aerobic and flood-irrigated management practices in mid-hills ecosystem. Agric Water Manage, 97: 1269-1276.
Prasad, B., Patwary, A.K. Patwary and Biswas, P.S. Biswas. (2001). Genetic variability and selection criteria in fine rice (Oryza sativa L.). Pakistan Journal. 4(10):1188-1190.
Rahim-soroush, H. (2005). Study the relationship between yield and yield components in rice. Iranian Journal of agricultural sciences, 35(4): 983-993.
Rajwade, Y.A., Swain, D.K. and Tiwari, K.N. (2014). Subsurface Drip Irrigation for Wet Season Rice Production under Climate Variability in India. Agricultural and Food Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur, Medinipore (W), West Bengal, INDIA. p.p:293-300.
Rao, K.V.R., Gangwar, S., Keshri, R., Chourasia, L., Bajpai, A. and Soni, K. (2017). Effects of drip irrigation system for enhancing rice (Oryza sativa L.) yield under system of rice intensification management. APPLIED ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH, 15(4):487-495.
Razavi, S.J. and Mirlohi, A.F. (1996). Study of current conditions of rice production in Isfahan province. Final report of the research project, Isfahan University of Technology, 57 pages. (In Farsi)
Rezaei, M. and Nahvi, M. (2007). Effect of irrigation interval on rice yield. Proceedings of the 11th Conference onIrrigation and Drainage. Tehran. 233–240. (In Farsi)
Rodenburg, J. and Johnson, D. E. (2009). Weed management in rice-based cropping systems in Africa. Advance Agronomy, 103: 149–218.
Selvaraj, C.I., Nagarajan, P., Thiyagarajan, K., Bharathi, M. and Rabindran, R. (2011). Genetic Parameters of Variability, Correlation and Path coefficient studies for grain yield and other yield Attributes among rice blast disease resistant genotypes of rice (Oryza sativa L.). African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 10(17), pp.3322-3334.
Sharma, P.K., Bhushan, L., Ladha, J.K., Naresh, R.K., Gupta, R.K., Balasubramanian, B.V. and Bouman, B.A.M. (2002). Crop-water relations in rice-wheat cropping under different tillage systems and watermanagement practices in a marginally sodic, medium-textured soil. Water-wise rice production. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, p.p 223–235.
Shi, H.R., Zhang, W.Z., Xie, W.X., Yang, Q., Zhang, Z.Y., et al. (2009). Analysis of matter production characteristics under different nitrogen application patterns of japonica super rice in north China. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 34: 1985–1993. (In Chinese with English abstract)
Sidhu, A.S., Kooner, R. and Verma, D.A. (2014). On-farm assessment of direct-seeded rice production system under central Punjab conditions. Journal of Crop and Weed, 10(1):56-60.
Singh, S., Bhushan, L., Ladha, J. K., Gupta, R. K., Rao, A. N. and Sivaprasad, B. (2006). Weed management in dry seeded rice (Oryza sativa) cultivated on furrow irrigated raised bed planting system. Crop Protection, 25: 487–495.
Singh, S., Sharma, S.N. and Prasad, R. (2000). The effect of seeding and tillage methods on productivity of rice–wheat cropping system. Soil & Tillage Research, 61 (2001): 125–131.
Tao, H., Brueck, H., Dittert, K., Kreye, C., Lin, S. and Sattelmacher, B. (2006). Growth and yield formation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the water–saving ground cover rice production system (GCRPS). Field Crops Research 95: 1-12. Available at url: http//www.sciencedirect. com.
Tavoosi, M., Naderi, A. and Ltfly-Ynh, G.H.A. (2015). Evaluation of wheat genotypes reaction to cold stress at heading stage using physiological indices, yield and yield components. Field Crop Science Iran, 46(1):105-113.
Xu, L., Li, X., Wang, X., Xiong, D. and Wang, F. (2019). Comparing the Grain Yields of Direct-Seeded and Transplanted Rice: A Meta-Analysis. agronomy, 14 pp.
Yang, J., Peng, S., Zhang, Z., Wang, Z., Visperas, R. M. and Zhu, Q. (2002). Grain and dry matter yields and partitioning of assimilates in Japonica/Indica hybrid rice. Crop Science, 42:766 -772.
Yun, S.I., Wada, Y., Maeda, T., Miura, K. and Watanable, K. (1997). Growth and yield of Japonica X Indica hybrid cultivars under direct seeding and upland conditions. Japanese Journal of Crop Science, 66: 386-393.
Zhang, J., Jia W., Yang, J. and Ismail, A.M. (2006). Role of ABA in integrating plantresponses to drought and salt stresses. Field Crops Research, 97: 111-119.