A Review of the Effect of Climate and Soil Evolution on Soil Organic Carbon Storage Resources in Central Alborz

Document Type : Review


1 Assistant Professor -soil science department-College of Agriculture & Natural Resources University of Tehran

2 Professor, soil science department, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources,University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran


Changes of soil carbon is one of the most important indicators showing the climate impacts on the soil genesis. Soil organic carbon management requires knowledge of its amount and the effective factors. In the current study, the distribution of soil properties especially soil organic carbon were studied in 76 soil profiles consist of different climatic zones arid (Alborz province), semi-arid (Alborz and Qazvin province) and semi-humid (Guilan and Mazandaran province) and humid (Mazandaran province) with aridic, xeric and udic moisture regimes and thermic and mesic temperature regimes. Changes in climatic parameters cause changes in species diversity in the ecosystem and ultimately effect on various forms of carbon, especially soil organic carbon. One of the most important climatic factors in this study is the temperature that increasing the soil temperature in arid and semi-arid regions compared to the two wetter regions causes intensification of mineralization and as a result, soil organic carbon is reduced. The results showed that the amount of organic carbon in the studied soil decreases with increasing depth and the average amount of organic carbon in Mollisols was higher than Alfisols= Inceptisols > Entisols > Aridisols. The general results of this study showed that increasing the parameters of soil electrical conductivity (salinity), soil acidity and clay content have a negative effect, while increasing the parameters of cation exchange capacity and silt content have positive effects on soil organic carbon content.


Adhikari, G. and Bhattacharyya, K. G. (2015). Correlation of soil organic carbon and nutrients (NPK) to soil mineralogy, texture, aggregation, and land use pattern. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 187(735), 1-18.
Ajami, M., Heidari, A., Khormali, F., Gorji, M., and Ayoubi, S. (2016). Environmental factors controlling soil organic carbon storage in loess soils of a subhumid region, northern Iran. Geoderma, 281, 1-10.
Altieri, M. A., Nicholls, C. I. (2017). The adaptation and mitigation potential of traditional agriculture in a changing climate. Climatic Change, 140, 33-45.
Alvarez, R. and Lavado, R. S. (1998). Climate, organic matter and clay content relationships in the Pampa and Chaco soils, Argentina. Geoderma, 83(1-2), 127- 141.
Amato, M. and Ladd, J.N. (1992). Decomposition of C14 labeled glucose and legume material in soils: properties
influencing the accumulation of organic residue C and microbial biomass C. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 24, 455-464.
Barré, P., Fernandez-Ugalde, O., Virto, I., Velde, B. and Chenu, C. (2014). Impact of phyllosilicate mineralogy on organic carbon stabilization in soils: incomplete knowledge and exciting prospects. Geoderma, 235, 382-395.
Batjes, N. H. (1996). Total carbon and nitrogen in the soils of the world. European Journal of Soil Science. 47, 151-164.
Bradford, M. A., Wieder, W. R., Bonan, G. B., Fierer, N., Raymond, P. A. and Crowther, T. W. (2016). Managing uncertainty in soil carbon feedbacks to climate change. Nature Climate Change, 6, 751–758.
Buol, S. W., Southard, R. J., Graham, R. C. and McDaniel, P. A. (2011) Soil Genesis and Classification (6th ed.). John Wiley and Sons Inc.
Carter, M. R., and Gregorich, E. G. (2008) Soil Sampling and Methods of Analysis (2nd ed.). Canadian Society of Soil Science.
Christensen, B. T. (2001). Physical fractionation of soil and structural and functional complexity in organic matter turnover. European Journal of Soil Science, 52, 345-353.
Crow S. E., Swantson C., and Lajtha K. (2007). Density fraction of forest soils: Methodological question and
interpretation of incubation result and turnover time in an ecosystem context. Biogechemistry, 85, 69-90.
Evans, S. E., Burke, I. C. and Lauenroth, W. K. (2011). Controls on soil organic carbon and nitrogen in Inner Mongolia, China: a cross-continental comparison of temperate grasslands. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 25(3).
Faghih, A. (2010). Carbon sequestration under different physiographic and climatic condition in north Karaj river using RS and GIS. MSc. Thesis, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran. (In Farsi)
Franzluebbers, A. J. (2002). Soil organic matter stratification ratio as an indicator of soil quality. Soil and Tillage Research, 66, 95-106.
Iqbal, J., Ronggui, H., Lijun, D., Lan, L., Shan, L., Tao, C. and Leilei, R. (2008). Differences in soil CO2 flux between different land use types in mid-subtropical China. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 40(9), 2324-2333.
Jackson, R. B., Lajtha, K., Crow, S. E., Hugelius, G., Kramer, M. G., and Piñeiro, G. (2017). The ecology of soil carbon: pools, vulnerabilities, and biotic and abiotic controls. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 48, 419-445.
Jimenez, J. J., Lal, R., Russo, R. O. and Leblanc, H. A. (2008). The soil organic carbon in particle-size
separates under different regrowth forest stands of north eastern Costa Rica. Ecological
, 34, 300-310.
Jobbágy, E. G., and Jackson, R. B. (2000). The vertical distribution of soil organic carbon and its relation to climate and vegetation. Ecological applications, 10(2), 423-436.
Kalbitz, K., Schwesig, D., Rethemeyer, J. and Matzner, E. (2005). Stabilization of dissolved organic matter by sorption to the mineral soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 37(7), 1319-1331.
Koven, C. D., Hugelius, G., Lawrence, D. M., and Wieder, W. R. (2017). Higher climatological temperature sensitivity of soil carbon in cold than warm climates. Nature Climate Change7(11), 817-822.
Lal, R. (2008). Carbon sequestration. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 363, 815-830.
Li, H., Wu, Y., Chen, J., Zhao, F., Wang, F., Sun, Y., and Qiu, L. (2021). Responses of soil organic carbon to climate change in the Qilian Mountains and its future projection. Journal of Hydrology, 596, 126110.
Liao, J. D., Boutton, T. W. and Jastrow, J. D. (2006). Organic matter turnover in soil physical fractions following woody plant invasion of grassland: evidence from natural 13C and 15N. Soil biology and biochemistry, 38(11), 3197-3210.
Lorenz, K., Lal, R. and Shipitalo, M. J. (2008). Chemical stabilization of organic carbon pools in particlesize fractions in no-till and meadow soils. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 44, 1043-1051.
Meng, F., Lal, R., Kuang, X., Ding, G. and Wu, W. (2014). Soil organic carbon dynamics within density and particle-size fractions of aquic cambisols under different land use in northern China. Geoderma Regional, 1, 1–9.
Minasny, B., Malone, B. P., McBratney, A. B., Angers, D. A., Arrouays, D., Chambers, A. (2017). Soil carbon 4 per mille. Geoderma, 292, 59-86.
Minasny, B., and McBratney, A. B. (2018). Limited effect of organic matter on soil available water capacity. European Journal of Soil Science, 69, 39–47.
Moghiseh, E. (2013). Assessing the Effects of Changes in Forest Land-Use on Soil Carbon Dynamics and Isotopic Changes (Kelardasht, Mazandaran Province, Ph.D. Thesis, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran. (In Farsi)
Motavalli, P. P., Palm, C. A. Parton, W. J., Elliott, E. T., and Frey, S. D. (1995). Soil pH and organic C dynamics in tropical forest soils: evidence from laboratory and simulation studies. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 27(12), 1589-1559.
Muller, T., and Hoper, H. (2004). Soil organic matter turnover as a function of the soil clay content: consequences for model applications. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 36, 877–888.
Osat, M. (2010). Change of soil organic carbon due to land-use change in central region of Karaj city. MSc. Thesis, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran. (In Farsi)
Pandey, C. B., Chaudhari, S. K., Dagar, J. C., Singh, G. B., and Singh, R. K. (2010). Soil N mineralization and microbial biomass carbon affected by different tillage levels in a hot humid tropic, Soil and Tillage Research, 11, 33-41.
Parvizi, Y. and Gorji, M. (2013). Effect of dry land management factors on soil organic carbon in the Merck basin of Kermanshah. Land Management Journal, 1 (1), 81-89. (In Farsi)
Rabbi, S. M. F., Tighe, M. K., Flavel, R. J., Kaiser, B. N., Guppy, C. N., Zhang, X., et al., (2018). Plant roots redesign the rhizosphere to alter the three-dimensional physical architecture and water dynamics. New Phytol, 219, 542–550.
Raheb, A. R. (2012). Image Analysis and investigation of micromorphological and mineralogical properties of paddy and non paddy soils. MSc. Thesis, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran. (In Farsi)
Raheb, A., and Heidari, A. (2012). Effects of clay mineralogy and physico-chemical properties on potassium availability under soil aquic conditions. Journal of soil science and plant nutrition12(4), 747-761.
Raheb, A. R. (2017). The effects of bioclimatological factors on soil organic and inorganic carbon contents in basaltic geological formations. Ph.D. Thesis, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran. (In Farsi)
Raheb, A., Heidari, A., and Mahmoodi, S. (2017). Organic and inorganic carbon storage in soils along an arid to dry sub-humid climosequence in northwest of Iran. Catena, 153, 66-74.
Rahman, M. M., Aravindakshan, S., Hoque, M. A., Rahman, M. A., Gulandaz, M. A., Rahman, J., and Islam, M. T. (2021). Conservation tillage (CT) for climate-smart sustainable intensification: Assessing the impact of CT on soil organic carbon accumulation, greenhouse gas emission and water footprint of wheat cultivation in Bangladesh. Environmental and Sustainability Indicators, 10, 100106.
Ren, W., Banger, K., Tao, B., Yang, J., Huang, Y., and Tian, H. (2020). Global pattern and change of cropland soil organic carbon during 1901-2010: roles of climate, atmospheric chemistry, land use and management. Geography and Sustainability, 1(1), 59-69.
Rice, C.W. (2005). Carbon Cycle in Soils; Dynamics and Management. Elsevier Ltd.
Rossel, R. A. V., Lee, J., Behrens, T., Luo, Z., Baldock, J. and Richards, A. (2019). Continental scale soil carbon composition and vulnerability modulated by regional environmental controls. Nature geoscience, 12, 547-552.
Scharlemann, J. P. W., Tanner, E. V. J., Hiederer, R. and Kapos, V. (2014). Global soil carbon: understanding and managing the largest terrestrial carbon pool. Carbon Management, 5, 81-91.
Schimel, D. S., Braswell, B. H., Holland, E. A., McKeown, R., Ojima, D. S., Painter, T. H., Parton, W. J., and Townsend, A. R. (1994). Climatic, edaphic, and biotic controls over storage and turnover of carbon in soils. Global Biogeochemistry Cycle, 8, 279-293.
Shakiba, A. and Rahnama, M., (2003). The impact of climate change on soil carbon variations. Third Regional
Conference on Climate Change, Meteorological Organization, Isfahan
. (In Farsi)
Shahbazi K, and Besharati, H. (2013). Overview of Agricultural Soil Fertility Status of Iran, Iranian Journal of Land Management, 1 (1), 1-15. (In Farsi)
Sharma, P. and Ray, S. C. (2007). Carbon sequestration with land-use cover change in a Himalayan watershed. Geoderma, 139, 371-378.
Sheidai Karkaj E, Sepehry A, Barani H, and Motamedi J. (2017). Soil organic carbon reserve relationship with some soil properties in East Azerbaijan rangelands, Journal of rangelands, 11(2): 125-138.
Shi, Y., Baumann, F., Ma, Y., Song, C., Kuhn, P., Scholten, T. and He, J. S. (2012). Organic and inorganic carbon in the topsoil of the Mongolian and Tibetan grasslands: pattern, control and implications. Biogeosciences, 9, 2287-2299.
Singh, S. K., pandey, C. B., Sidhu, G. S., Dipak, Sarkar, R. S. (2011). Concentration and stock of carbon in the soils affected by land uses and climates in the western Himalaya, India. Catena, 87, 78-89.
Six, J., Conant, R. T. and Paul, E. A. (2002). Stabilization mechanisms of soil organic matter: implications for C-saturation of soils. Plant Soil, 241, 155-176.
Six, J., and Paustian, K. (2014). Aggregate-associated soil organic matter as an ecosystem property and a measurement tool. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 68, A4-A9.
Soil Survey Staff. (2014). Keys to Soil Taxonomy (12nd ed.). United States Department of Agriculture. NRCS.
Somaratne, S., Seneviratne, G., and Coomaraswamy, U. (2005). Prediction of soil organic carbon across different land-use patterns: A neural network approach. Soil Science Society of American Journal, 69, 1580-1589.
Sollins, P., Kramer, M. G., Swanston, C., Lajtha, K., Filley, T., Aufdenkampe, A. K.,Wagai, R. and Bowden, R. D. (2009). Sequential density fractionation across soils of contrasted mineralogy: evidence for both microbial- and mineral-controlled soil organic matter stabilization. Biogeochemistry, 96, 209-231.
Soussana, J. F., Lutfalla, S., Ehrhardt, F., Rosenstock, T., Lamanna, C., Havlík, P., et al., (2019). Matching policy and science: rationale for the ‘4 per 1000 - soils for food security and climate’ initiative. Soil and Tillage Research, 188, 3-15.
Sparks, D. L. (1996) Method of Soil Analysis. Part 3. Chemical Methods. American Society of Agronomy.
Stevens, A. and Wesemael, B. (2008). Soil organic carbon dynamics at the regional scale as
influenced by land use history: a case study in forest soils from southern Belgium. Soil Use and Management, 24, 69-79.
USDA-NRCS. (2012a) Field Book for Describing and Sampling Soils. Version 3.0, National Soil Survey Center.
USDA-NRCS. (2012b) jNSM: Java Newhall Simulation Model. Version 1.6.0. User guide-part 1. National Soil Survey Center.
Von Lützow, M., Kogel-Knabner, I., Akschmitt, K., Matzner, E., Guggenberger, G., Marschner, B. and Flessa, H. (2006). Stabilization of soil organic matter in temperate soils: mechanisms and their relevance under different soil conditions - a review. Eurapian Journal of Soil Science, 57, 426-445.
Wang, D., Shi, X., Wang, H., Weindorf, D. C., Yu, D., Sun, W., Ren, H. and Zhao, Y. (2010). Scale effect of climate and soil texture on soil organic carbon in the uplands of Northeast China. Pedosphere, 20, 525-535.
Wang, Z. P., Han, X. G., Chang, S. X., Wang, B., Yu, Q., Hou, L. Y. and Li, L. H. (2013). Soil organic and inorganic carbon contents under various land uses across a transect of continental steppes in Inner Mongolia. Catena, 109, 110-117.
Wattel-Koekkoek, E., Van Genuchten, P., Buurman, P. and Van Lagen, B. (2001). Amount and composition of clay-associated soil organic matter in a range of kaolinitic and smectitic soils. Geoderma, 99(1), 27-49.
Wiseman, C. and Püttmann, W. (2005). Soil organic carbon and its sorptive preservation in central Germany. European Journal of Soil Science, 56(1), 65-76.
Wiesmeier, M., Urbanski, L., Hobley, E., Lang, B., von Lutzow, M., Marin-Spiotta, E., van Wesemael, B., Rabot, E., Liess, M., Garcia-Franco, N., Wollschlager, U., Vogel, H.J., and Kogel-Knabner, I. (2019). Soil organic carbon storage as a key function of soils – A review of drivers and indicators at various scales. Geoderma, 333, 149 162.
Zhou, Y., Hartemink, A. E., Shi, Z., Liang, Z., and Lu, Y. (2019). Land use and climate change effects on soil organic carbon in North and Northeast China. Science of the Total Environment, 647, 1230-1238.