The Effect of Nitrogen fertilizer and Poultry Manure on Yield and Nitrate Residuals in Autumn Onion Crop in Jiroft Region

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Faculty Members of Soil and Water Research Department, South Kerman Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Jiroft, Iran

2 Faculty Members of Soil and Water Research Department, South Kerman Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Jiroft, Iran.

3 Master of Science, Soil and Water Research Department, South Kerman Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Jiroft, Iran


This study was conducted to evaluate the application of poultry manure and urea fertilizer in onion in the randomized complete block design with three replications during 2018 and 2019. The treatments were:1-Control (276 kg/haN), 2-Recommended optimal nitrogen limit for the region crop (184 kg/haN)+Optimal consumption of other nutrients, 3- nitrogen consumption 25% more than the optimal limit+Optimal consumption of other nutrients, 4-Consumption of nitrogen 25% less than the optimal limit+five t/ha of poultry manure+optimal consumption of other nutrients and 5-Consumption of nitrogen 25% less than the optimal limit+tent/ha of poultry manure+Optimal consumption of other nutrients. The results showed that the effects of treatments on yield, the concentration of other elements, and nitrate residuals in onion bulbs and leaves were significant at the level of 1% probability. The control had the lowest yield (43.3t/ha) and the highest nitrate residuals (184.3 and 571.2mg/kg, respectively) and the lowest concentrations of potassium, iron, zinc, and manganese in bulbs and leaves. Also, treatment five showed the highest yield (25.1% increase compared to the control), and no significant difference in yield was observed between treatments four and five. The lowest nitrate residuals in bulbs were in treatment four, which was 69.9%, 21.7, 43.3, and 3.4% less than treatments one, two, three, and five, respectively. The application of treatment four, while reducing the consumption of urea fertilizer by 50% and as a result of reducing nitrate in bulbs to less than the critical level and increasing the yield by 18%, resulting in about 11% more revenue than the control.


Ahmadi K., Abadzadeh H., Hatami F., Hosseinpour R. and Abdshah H. (1399) Agricultural statistics of the crop year 1397-98, Ministry of Agriculture, Tehran,
Al-Fraihat A.H. (2016). Impact of different fertilizer sources on vegetative growth, yield, quality and storability of onion. International Invention Journal of Agricultural and Soil Science, 4(1), 1-8.
Ali E., Abbas G., Khan M., Khan M., Hussain F. and Hussain I. (2009). Soil fertility and fertilizers-an introduction to nutrient management. Asian Journal of Crop Science, 4(4), 135-9.
Ali M., Khan N., Khan A., Rafeh Ullah A.N., Khan M.W., Khan K., Farooq S. and Rauf K. (2018). Organic manures effect on the bulb production of onion cultivars under semiarid condition. Pure and Applied Biology (PAB), 7(3), 1161-1170.
Amini R., Dabbagh Mohammadinasab A. and Mahdavi S. (2017). Effect of Organic Fertilizers in Combination with Chemical Fertilizer on Tuber Yield and Some Qualitative Characteristics of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Journal Of Agroecology, 9(3), 734-748. (In Farsi)
Anjana S.U. and Iqbal M. (2007). Nitrate accumulation in plants, factors affecting the process, and human health implications. A review. Agronomy for sustainable development, 27(1), 45-57.
Arisha H.M.E., Gad A.A. and Younes S.E. (2003). response of some pepper cultivars to organic and mineral nitrogen fertilizers under sandy soil conditions. Zagazig Journal of Agricultural Research, 30, 1875-1899.
Aulakh M.S., Manchanda J.S., Garg A.K., Kumar S., Dercon G. and Nguyen M.-L. (2012). Crop production and nutrient use efficiency of conservation agriculture for soybean–wheat rotation in the Indo-Gangetic Plains of Northwestern India. Soil and Tillage Research, 120, 50-60.
Cataldo D., Maroon M., Schrader L.E. and Youngs V.L. (1975). Rapid colorimetric determination of nitrate in plant tissue by nitration of salicylic acid. Communications in soil science and plant analysis, 6(1), 71-80.
Chezgi M., Chalavi V. and Akbarpour V. (2018). The Effect of Organic and Chemical Nitrogen Fertilizers on the Yield and Qualitative Characteristics of Two Basil Cultivars. Journal of Crop production and processing, 8(1), 29-44.
Coolong T.W., Kopsell D.A., Kopsell D.E. and Randle W.M. (2005). Nitrogen and sulfur influence nutrient usage and accumulation in onion. Journal of plant Nutrition, 27(9), 1667-1686.
Dhaliwal S.S., Naresh R.K., Mandal A., Singh R. and Dhaliwal M.K. (2019). Dynamics and transformations of micronutrients in agricultural soils as influenced by organic matter build-up: A review. Environmental and Sustainability Indicators, 1-2, 100007.
Dina M., Shafeek M. and Abdallah M. (2010). Effect of different nitrogen sources and soil solarization on green onion productivity for exportation. Annals of Agricultural Science (Cairo), 55(1), 97-106.
Doklega S.M. (2017). Effect of farmyard manure, sulphur and humic acid fertilization on Onion productivity. International Journal of Advanced Research in Biological Sciences, 4(7), 38-52.
Falodun E.J. and Egharevba R. (2018). Influence of poultry manure rates and spacing on growth, yield, nutrient concentration, uptake and proximate composition of onion (Allium cepa L.). Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 10(1), 117-123.
Faostat F. (2019). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations-Statistic Division https://www. fao. org/faost at/en/# data. QC.
Gairola S., Umar S. and Suryapani S. (2009). Nitrate accumulation, growth and leaf quality of spinach beet (Beta vulgaris Linn.) as affected by NPK fertilization with special reference to potassium. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 2(2), 35-40.
Gee G. and Bauder J. (1986) Particle-size analysis 1: Soil science society of America, American Society of Agronomy Madison, WI,
Ghosh P.K., Ramesh P., Bandyopadhyay K.K., Tripathi A.K., Hati K.M., Misra A.K. and Acharya C.L. (2004). Comparative effectiveness of cattle manure, poultry manure, phosphocompost and fertilizer-NPK on three cropping systems in vertisols of semi-arid tropics. I. Crop yields and system performance. Bioresource Technology, 95(1), 77-83.
Hanafy Ahmed A., Khalil M. and Farrag A.M. (2002). Nitrate accumulation, growth, yield and chemical composition of Rocket (Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa) plant as affected by NPK fertilization, kinetin and salicylic acid. Annals Of Agricultural Science-Cairo-, 47(1), 495-508.
Hawkesford M.J. and De Kok L.J. (2006). Managing sulphur metabolism in plants. Plant, Cell & Environment, 29(3), 382-395.
Jones J.B. (2001) Laboratory guide for conducting soil tests and plant analysis, CRC press, 363p.
Kobierski M., Bartkowiak A., Lemanowicz J. and Piekarczyk M. (2017). Impact of poultry manure fertilization on chemical and biochemical properties of soils. Plant, Soil and Environment, 63(12), 558-563.
Lindsay W. (1972) Zinc in soils and plant nutrition. Advances in agronomy (Vol. 24).(pp. 147-186). Elsevier.
Mahala P., Chaudhary M. and Garhwal O. (2018). Yield and quality of rabi onion (Allium cepa L.) influenced by integrated nutrient management. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 7(5), 3313-3321.
Malakouti M.J. (2011). Relationship between Balanced Fertilization and Healthy Agricultural Products (A Review). Journal of Crop Ecophysiology, 4(16), 133-150. (In Farsi)
Mansor Bahmani S., Saffari V.R. and Maghsoudi Moud A.A. (2014). Effect of the Amount and Time of Partitioning of Nitrogen Fertilizer on the Yield and Nitrate Content of Onion in Out-Season Production in Jiroft. Journal Of Horticultural Science, 27(4), 400-410.
Mia M.B., Akter S., Molla A. and Rahman G.M. (2007). Poultry Manure with Inorganic Nitrogen on Growth and Yield of Onion (Allium cepa L.). The Agriculturists, 101-108.
Motsara M. and Roy R.N. (2008) Guide to laboratory establishment for plant nutrient analysis, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Rome, 213p.
Mousavi Moayeid F., Cheraghi M. and Lorestani B. (2017). Investigation of the amount of phosphate and nitrate accumulation in consumable onion in Hamedan city. Journal Of Neyshabur University of Medical Sciences, 4(4), 82-89. (In Farsi)
Nelson D.W. and Sommers L.E. (1996). Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. Methods of soil analysis: Part 3 Chemical methods, 5, 961-1010.
Pirsaheb M., Rahimian S. and Pasdar Y. (2012). Nitrite and Nitrate content of fruits and vegetables in Kermanshah (2010). Journal Of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, 16(1), 76-83.
Seran T., Srikrishnah S. and Ahamed M. (2010). Effect of different levels of inorganic fertilizers and compost as basal application on the growth and yield of onion (Allium cepa L.). The Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 5(2), 64-70.
Sikora E. and Cieslik E. (1999). Correlation between the levels of nitrates and nitrites and the contents of iron, copper and manganese in potato tubers. Food Chemistry, 67(3), 301-304.
Soleymani A. and Shahrajabian M.H. (2012). Effects of different levels of nitrogen on yield and nitrate content of four spring onion genotypes. International journal of Agriculture and crop sciences, 4(4), 179-182.
Sparks D., Page A., Helmke P., Loeppert R., Soltanpour P., Tabatabai M., Johnston C. and Summer M. (1996). Methods of soil analysis, parts 2 and 3 chemical analysis. Soil Science Society of America Inc., Madison.
Tabande L. and Zarei M. (2018). Overview of Nitrate Concentration in Some Vegetables Produced in Zanjan Province. Iranian Journal of Soil Research, 32(3), 373-381.
Tadayon M.S. (2018). Effect of Different amounts of Urea Fertilizer on Yield and Nitrate Accumulation in Edible Parts of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Journal of Plant Ecophysiology, 10(34), 206-217. (In Farsi)
Tucker D.E., Allen D.J. and Ort D.R. (2004). Control of nitrate reductase by circadian and diurnal rhythms in tomato. Planta, 219(2), 277-285.
Tyagi A. and Yadav S. (2007). Effect of growth regulators on growth and yield of onion (Allium cepa L.) cv. Pusa Red. Plant Archives, 7(1), 371-372.
Vahed S., Mosafa L., Mirmohammadi M. and Lakzadeh L. (2015). Effect of some processing methods on nitrate changes in different vegetables. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, 9(3), 241-247.
Yazdanpanah A. and Motallebifard R. (2017). The Effects of Chicken Manure and Potassium Fertilizer on Yield and Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Zinc and Copper Uptake of Potato. Applied Soil Research, 4(2), 60-71. (In Farsi)
Yohannes K.W., Derbew B. and Adugna D. (2013). Effect of farmyard manure and nitrogen fertilizer rates on growth, yield and yield components of onion (Allium cepa L.) at Jimma, southwest Ethiopia. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 12(6), 228-234.
Yoldas F., Ceylan S., Mordogan N. and Esetlili B.C. (2011). Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on yield and mineral content of onion (Allium cepa L.). African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(55), 114488-11482.
Zewde A., Mulatu A. and Astatkie T. (2018). Inorganic and organic liquid fertilizer effects on growth and yield of onion. International Journal of Vegetable Science, 24(6), 567-573.