Investigation of Relative Toxicity of Some Combined Herbicides on Earthworm (Eisenia fetida L.) Biomass

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Student of Weed Science, Department of Genetics and Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, IRAN

2 Professor of Weed Science, Department of Genetics and Plant Production. Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili,Ardabil. IRAN

3 Professor of Weed Science, Department of Genetics and Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, IRAN

4 Professor, Department of Plant and Environmental Science, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DENMARK

5 Associated Professor of Soil Biology, Department of Soil Science and Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, IRAN


Frequent and widespread use of herbicides has adverse effects on nontarget species, such as earthworms. Several experiments were performed in Mohaghegh Ardabili University on 2019 to evaluate the relative toxicity of metribuzin, halosulfuron, flumioxazin individually and combination of metribuzin:halosulfuron and metribuzin:flumioxazin on Eisenia fetida. The earthworms biomass was investigated by different concentration of herbicides and sampling time (24 and 48h after treatment). LC50 values of individual herbicides demonstrated that metribuzin and halosulfuron had high effect on earthworms biomass at 24 and 48 h after treatment. Flumioxazin was less toxic than the metribuzin and halosulfuron. The results indicated that the (50:50) and (25:75)% mixture ratios of metribuzin:halosulfuron and metribuzin:flumioxain provided  higher toxicity than the other mixture ratios (100:0) and (0:100)%, respectively. Isobologram demonstrated metribuzin:halosulfuron and metribuzin:flumioxazin followed antagonistic effect meaning that the mixtures retracted the herbicides action in the earthworms relative to a Concentration Addition (CA) reference model.


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