The effect of Ascorbic acid and Melatonin on Morphophysiological Characteristics and Salinity Tolerance of Miniature Rose (Rosa chinensis var. minima)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Azad University, Science and Technology Branch, Tehran

2 Horticultural Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture,, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research, Tehran, Iran

3 Soil Science Department, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

4 Department of agriculture, Payame noor Universidy, Tehran, Iran


Soil salinity is a major abiotic constraint affecting crop yield and quality of ornamental plants. The current study aimed to investigate the melatonin and ascorbic acid regulator on the morphological and physiological characteristics of miniature roses under salinity stress, in the research greenhouse of Agriculture and Natural Resources Campus, University of Tehran, located in Karaj, on biennial cuttings of miniature roses, in plastic pots with a diameter of 14 cm containing cocopeat and perlite (1: 1), in the randomized complete block design with four replications, in the spring of 2018. The studied factors included foliar application of melatonin (at four concentrations of 0, 1, 10, and 100 μM) and ascorbic acid (at three concentrations of 0.5, 1.5, and 3 mM) and combined treatment containing two levels of melatonin 1 μM × ascorbic acid 0.5 mM and melatonin 1 μM × ascorbic acid 1.5 mM and salinity stress at three levels of zero, four and eight dS/m. The results showed that the salinity stress generally reduced morphological characteristics; in this study, the most effective treatment in the foliar application was observed with 3 mM ascorbic acid treatment, which increased the number of flowers and branch height by 36% and 86%, respectively, compared to the control. Foliar application of melatonin 100 μM showed the highest effect on the concentration of nitrogen and potassium equal to 43% and 11% as compared to the control, respectively. Accumulation of soluble sugars during salinity stress conserving osmotic potential and reducing dehydration, and the leaf soluble sugar increased by 11% as compared to the control and proline was observed in foliar application with 1 μM melatonin treatment. The results of this study showed that the ability of this antioxidant (Ascorbic acid 3 mM) can be used to improve the growth and development of miniature roses under salinity stress.


Abad M, Noguera P, Puchades R, Maquieira A. and Noguera, V. (2002). Physico-chemical and chemical properties of some coconut coir dusts for use as a peat substitute for containerised ornamental plants. Bioresource Technology 82(3): 241-245.
Ahmed, A.H. (1996). Physiological studies on tiploun and nitrate accumulation in lettuce plants. J. Agric. Sci., Mansoura Univ., 21: 3971-3994.
Ahmed P, Jaleel C.A., Azooz M, and Nabi G. (2009). Generation of ROS and non-enzymatic antioxidants during abiotic stress in plants. Botany Research International. 2: 11-20
Akram N. A., Shafigh F, and Ashraf M. (2017). Ascorbic Acid-A Potential Oxidant Scavenger and Its Role in Plant Development and Abiotic Stress Tolerance. Frontiers in Plant Science journal.  8:613. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2017.00613
Ali, E.F., Bazaid, S.A. & Hassan, F.A.S. (2014). Salinity tolerance of taif roses by gibberellic acid (GA3). International Journal of Science and Research, 3(11), 184-192.
Allegra M, Reiter R, Tan D, Gentile C, Tesoriere, Livrea M. (2003). The chemistry of melatonin`s insteraction with reaction species. Journal of Pineal Reserch. 34:1 – 10. 10.1034/j.1600-079X.2003.02112.x.
Ashraf M, and Harris P. (2004). Potential Biochemical Indicators of Salinity Tolerance in Plants. Plant Science. 166. 3-16. 10.1016/j.plantsci.2003.10.024.
Baldotto, M.A., and L.E.B. Baldotto. 2013. Gladiolus development in response to bulb treatment with different concentrations of humic acids. Revista Ceres 60:138-142. 
Barth, C., De Tullio, M., and Conklin, P. L. (2006). The role of ascorbic acid in the control of flowering time and the onset of senescence. J. Exp. Bot. 57, 1657–1665. doi: 10.1093/jxb/erj198
Bayat H, Alirazaie M, Neamati H, and Abdollahi Saadabad A. (2013). Effectof silicon on   growth and ornamental traits of salt-stressed calendula (Calendula officinalis L.). Journal of Ornamental Plants. 3(4): 207-214.
Billah M, Rohman M, Neelima H, and Shalim U. (2017). Exogenous ascorbic acid improved tolerance in maize (Zea maize L.) by increasing antioxidant activity under salinity stress. AfricanJournalof Agricultural Research, 12(17), pp. 1437-1446, DOI: 10.5897/AJAR2017.12295.
Dawood MG, El-Awadi ME. (2015). Alleviation of salinity stress on Vicia faba L. plants via seed priming with melatonin. Acta biol. Colomb. 20(2):223-235.
El-Ghany, M. F. A., & Attia, M. (2020). Effect of exopolysaccharideproducing bacteria and melatonin on faba bean production in saline and non-saline soil. Agronomy, 10(3), 316. agronomy10030316.
Fan, J., Xie, Y., Zhang, Z., & Chen, L. (2018). Melatonin: A Multifunctional Factor in Plants. International journal of molecular sciences19(5), 1528.
Fatma, E.; El-Quesni, M.; El-Aziz, A.; Nahed, G.; Kandil, M.M. (2009). Some studies on the effect of ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol on the growth and some chemical composition of Hibiscus rosasineses L. at Nubaria. Ozean J. Appl. Sci. 2009, 2, 159–167.
Gupta, B and Huang, B. (2014). Mechanism of Salinity Tolerance in Plants: Physiological, Biochemical, and Molecular Characterization. Department of Biological Sciences (Section Biotechnology), Presidency University, 86/1 College Street, Kolkata 700073, India  Department of Plant Biology and Pathology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA.
Hegazi A.M., and El-Shraiy A.M. (2017). Stimulation of photosynthetic pigments, anthocyanin, antioxidant enzymes in salt stressed Red Cabbage plants by ascorbic acid and potassium silicate. Middle East Journal of Agriculture Research, 6(2):553-568.
Hamada A. M, and EL-enany A.E. (1994). Effect of NaCl salinity on growth, pigment and mineral element contents, and gas exchange of broad bean and pea plants. Biologia Plantarum, 36: 75- 81.
Ilahi W F and Ahmad D. (2017). A Study on the physical and hydraulic characteristics of cocopeat perlite mixture as a growing media in containerized plant production. Sains Malaysiana. 46: 975-980. 10.17576/jsm-2017-4606-17.
Jesus, J. M., Danko, A. S., Fiuza, A. and Borges, M.T. (2015). Phytoremediation of salt-affected soils: a review of processes, applicability, and the impact of climate change, Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 22,6511-6525.
Kataria S, and Verma S.K. (2018). Salinity stress responses and adaptive mechanism in major glycophytic crops: The story so far. In salinity responses and tolerance in  plants. Springer International Publishing.1:1-39.
Kostopoulou Z Therios I, Roumeliotis E, Kanellis A, and Molassiotis A. (2014). Melatonin combined with ascorbic acid provides salt adaptation in Citrus aurantium L. seedlings. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry : PPB / Societe francaise de physiologie vegetale. 86C. 155-165. 10.1016/j.plaphy.2014.11.021.
Kumar Nagda J, Nishant A.B, Deepmala K, Akhouri H, and Dinesh K. (2017). Mitigating effect of foliar applied ascorbic acid on morpho-physiological, biochemical changes and yield attributes induced by salt stress in Vigna radiate. Department of Plant Physiology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221-005(U.P), India. 112-116.
Li C, Wang P, Wei Z, Liang D, Liu C, Yin L, Jia D, Fu M, and Ma F. (2012). The mitigation effects of exogenous melatonin on salinity-induced stress in Malus hupehensis. Department of Pomology, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China. pp 298-306.
Parvaiz A, and Satyawati S. (2008). Salt stress and phyto-biochemical responses of plants - A review. Plant, Soil and Environment. 54. 10.17221/2774-PSE.
Ritchie S.W, and Nguyen H.T. (1990). Leaf water content and gas exchange parameters of two wheat genotypes differing in drought resistance. Crop Science, 30: 105-111.
Rykaczewska K, and Mańkowski D. (2015). The effect of physiological age of potato plants on chosen chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. Plant Soil and Environment. 61. 462-467. 10.17221/474/2015-PSE.
Rayle, D.L., and Cleland, R.E. 1992. The Acid Growth Theory of auxin-induced cell elongation is alive and well. Plant Physiology, 99(4): 1271-1274.
Sadak M. (2016). Mitigation of salinity adverse effects of on wheat by grain priming with melatonin. Botany Department, National Research centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt. pp 85-97.
Saeed, Abdul Kareem A.J. Mohammad. (2020). Effect of ascorbic and salicylic acids on growth and flowering of Gazania cv. Frosty Kiss Mixed. Ornamental Horticulture26(4), 537-544. Epub November 09, 2020.
Sheligl HQ. (1986). Die verwertung orgngischer souren durch chlorella lincht. Planta Journal. 47-51. (With English abstract).
Sarropoulou, V., Dimassi-Theriou, K., Therios, I., & Koukourikou-Petridou, M. (2012). Melatonin enhances root regeneration, photosynthetic pigments, biomass, total carbohydrates and proline content in the cherry rootstock PHL-C (Prunus avium × Prunus cerasus). Plant physiology and biochemistry : PPB61, 162–168.
Tullio, M.C., Arrigoni, O. (2004). Hopes, disillusions and more hopes from vitamin C. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, v.61, n.2, p.209-219, 2004. https://doi. org/10.1007/s00018-003-3203-8.
Ultman, J. L., (2013). Soil salinity in agricultural systems: the basics. Accessed on 29th Agust 2017 (2013), from
Valquiria Dos Ries, M., Mendonca Figueiredo J.R., Paiva, R., Pedrosa Correa Da Silva, D., Nunes De Faria, C.V and Vaughn Rouhana, L. (2016). Salinity in rose production, p. 228-234.
Zahedi, S. M., Hosseini, M. S., Abadía, J. and M.Marjani (2020). Melatonin foliar sprays elicit salinity stress tolerance and enhance fruit yield and quality in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassaDuch.). Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 149: 313-323.
Zhang N, Sun Q, Zhang H, Cao Y, Weeda S, Ren S, and GouYD. (2015). Roles of melatonin in abiotic stress resistance in plants. Journal of Experimental Botany, 66(3): 647–656.
Zhang R, Sun Y, Liu Z, Jin W, and Sun Y. (2017). Effects of melatonin on seedling growth, mineral nutrition, and nitrogen metabolism in cucumber under nitrate stress. Jurnal of Pineal Rresearch. 62:e12403.