Assessment of Zeoplant and Biochar of Sugarcane Residual on Mean Weight Diameter and Atterberg Limits of Soil Contaminated with Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Soil Science Dep. Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. Iran

2 Assistant Professor of Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.


One of the most important groups of environmental contaminants is petroleum hydrocarbons which usually come from oil and gaseous industrial. In this study, the effects of Zeoplant and Biochar of Bagasse as an organic-mineral and organic amendments were investigated on the soil physical and mechanical properties in Oil fields of Ahvaz. Soil sampling was performed using systematic sampling (randomized in the block), then the soil samples were put in the pots and 2, 4 and 6 % (by weight) of treatments added to the soils. The incubation time was 100 days and during this time the moisture level adjusted on 25 and 50% of field capacity (FC). After incubation, the soil aggregate stability, friability index (FI), Atterberg limits and soil permeability were measured using standard methods. Our results revealed that the mean weight diameter (MWD) was decreased from 1.3 mm for the blank to 0.6 mm for 6% of Zeoplant treatment at 50% of FC. Moreover, for both treatments friability index was increased which was higher for 50% of FC, while for 6% of Zeoplant, FI was declined. Also, the application of 2 and 4% of biochar decreased the MWD as an index of soil aggregate stability. Results depicted that the application of Zeoplant and Bagasse Biochar increased liquid limit (LL) and plastic limit (PL) and consequently decreased the plastic index (PI). In general, the application of organic-mineral treatments to the soil was effective on soil physical and mechanical properties; therefore the quantity and quality of the above treatment must be considered as a component of decision pyramid. 


Adams, R. H., Osorio, F.G., and Cruz, J. Z. (2008). Water repellency in oil contaminated sandy and clayey soils. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, (5) 445-454.
Adams. F.V., Niyomugabo . A., Silvester.O.P. (2017). Bioremediation of crude oil contaminated soils using agricuitural waste. International conference on sustainable processing and manufacturing, SMPM 2017, 23-25 January, Kruger National Park.
Asadi, P., Heidari, A. 2016. Impact of Waste Materials Resulting from the Refining of Crude Oil on Some Soil Physico-Chemical Properties. Journal of Water and Soil. 30(3): 868-879.
Atkinson, C.J., Fitzgerald, J.D., Hipps, N. A. (2010). Potential mechanisms for achieving agricultural benefits from biochar application to temperate soils: A review. Plant and Soil, (337), 1-18.
Brennan, A., Moreno, E., Jose, J. N., Alburquerque, A., Knapp, C.W.and Switzer, C. (2014). Effect of biochar and activated carbon amendment on maiz growth and the uptake and measured availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Environmental pollution, (193), 79-87.
Dexter, A. R., Richard, G., Arrouays, D., Czyz, E.A., Jolivet, C., and Duval, O. (2008). Complexed organic matter control soil physical properties. Geoderma, (144), 620-627.
Dexter, A. R., and Watts, C.W. (2000). Tensile strength and friability. In: Soil and Environmental Analysis: Physical Methods, 2nd ed. K. A. Smith, and C. E. Mullins (eds.). Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, (pp. 405–433).
Eibisch, N., Durner, W., Bechtold, M., Fu, B, R., Mikutta, R., Woche, S.K, Mandhelfrich, M. (2015). Does water repellency of pyrochars counter their positive effects on soil hydraulic properties? Geoderma, (245), 31-39.
Estabragh, A. R., Beytolahpour, I., Moradi, M., Javadi, A. A. (2016). "Mechanical behavior of a clay soil contaminated with glycerol and ethanol", European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering, 20 (5), 503-519.
Gang, Q., Dan, G., and Mei-Ying, F. (2013). Bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil by biostimulation amended. Journal of Environmental Technology, (85), 150-155.
Gholami, M. (2010). Superabsorbent a way to extend the green areas and water deficiency. Issues of Rah Shahr Company. No. 110.
Hallet, P.D., White, N., and Ritz, K. (2006). Impact of basidiomycete fungi on the wettability of soil contaminated with a hydrophobic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. Biologia, (61), 334-338.
Han, T.,  Zhao, Z., Bartlam, M. (2016). Combination of biochar amendment and phytoremediation for hydrocarbon removal in petroleum-contaminated soil. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23, 21219–21228 (2016).
Herath, H., Camps-Arbestain, M., Hedly, M. (2013). Effect of biochar on soil physical properties in two contrasting soils: an alfisols and an andisols. Geoderma, (2016):188-197.
Kermanpour, M., Mosaddeghi, M.R. (2014). Assessment of oil pollution on soil stability, permeability and pollution management in Bakhtiardasht Isfahan. Soil management Journal. 3(1), 43-51.
Khademalrasoul A., Naveed, M., Heckrath, G., Kumari, K.G.I.D., de Jonge, L.W., Elsgaard, L., Vogel, H.J., and Iversen, B.V. (2014). Biochar effects on soil aggregate properties under no-till maize. Soil Science. (179), 273–283.
Khademalrasoul, Kuhn, J.N., Elsgaard, L., Hu, Y., Iversen, B.V., Heckrath, G. (2019). A. Short-term Effects of Biochar Application on Soil Loss During a Rainfall-Runoff Simulation. Soil Science. (184), 17-24.
Ataallah Khademalrasoul,
Nikolaus J. Kuhn,
Lars Elsgaard,
Yaxian Hu,
Bo V. Iversen,
and Goswin Heckrath
Khatibi, M., Estabragh, A., Abbasi, N. (2015). Experimental assessment of Soil-cement mechanical behavior incorporated with organic pollution. Journal of soil and water research, 46 (1), 141-149.
Khoshneshin Langrudi, M., Akbar Abadi, M. (2010). Study the effect of oil pollution mechanical parameters of clayey soil. The 5th congress of Civil Engineering. Ferdowsi Mashhad University.
Lehmann J., Liang B., Solomon, D., Kinyangi, J., Grossman, J., O. Neill, B., Skjemsted, J. O., Thies, J., Luzao, F.J.,  Petersen, J., Neves, E.G. (2006). Black carbon increases cation exchange capacity in soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, (70), 1719-1730.
Lohrasbi, H., Khademalrasoul, A., Farrokhian Firuzi, A. (2019). Effects of Biochar and Zeoplant on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Erodible Soils (Case Study: Bostan). Journal of Water and Soil. 33(5): 723-737.
Minueei, S., Tehrani, D., Hamidi, M. (2013). Study of soil polluted with oil on activity of Alkane Phosphatase Enzyme in Lentil. Journal of Cellular and Molecular researches. Iranian Journal of Biology. 2:3.
Mohammadi, N., Khademalrasoul, A. (2020). Investigation of Biochar and Zeoplant Application on Mechanical Properties of Soils Contaminated with Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPHs) in Oil Fields of Ahvaz. Soil Researches (Water and Soil Sciences). 34 (3) 411-423.
Ouyang, L., Wang, F., Tang.,Yu, L., Zhang, R. (2013). Effects of biochar amendment on soil aggregates and hydraulic properties. Journal of Soil Science Plant Nutrient. 13(4), 991-1002.Tushar, C.S., Incerti, G., Spaccini, R., Piccolo, A., Mazzoleni, S., Bonanomi, G., (2018).Linking organic matter chemistry with soil aggregate stability: Insight from 13C NMR spectroscopy. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 117: 175-184.
 Qin G, Gong D, Fan MY (2013) Bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil by biostimulation amended with biochar. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 85:150–155.
Rahman, Z., Hamzah, U., and Taha, M. (2010). Influence of Oil Contamination on Geotechnical Properties of Basaltic Residual Soil. American Journal of Applied Science, 7 (7), 954-961.
Roy, J.L., McGill, W.B. (1998). Characterization of disaggregated nonwettable surface soils found a told crude oil spill sites. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, (78), 331-344.
Shaabanpour, M., Hashemi, K. (2011). Effect of type and amount of compost on soil physical properties. Journal of soil researches (Water and soil sciences). 25, 2.
Utomo, W.H. and Dexter, A.R. (1982). Changes in soil aggregate water stability induced by wetting drying cycles in non-saturated soil. Journal of Soil Science, (33), 623–637.
Utomo, W.H. and Dexter, A.R. (1981). Age hardening of agricultural top soils. Journal of Soil Science, (32), 335–350.
Watts, C.W., Dexter, A.R. (2008). Soil friability: Theory, measurement and the effects of management and organic carbon content. European Journal of Soil Science. 49(1)73-84.
Zohrabi, F., Abbasipour, A. (2017). Amendment of oily soil with biochar and two type of native plant in Gachsaran. MSc thesis. Shahrood Industrial University, Faculty of Agriculture.
Zong, Y., Chen, D., Lu, S. (2014). Impact of biochar on swell-shrinkage behavior, mechanical strength, and surface cracking of clayey soil. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 177(6), 920-926.