The Effects of Phytoremediation and Bioremediation on Removal and Transferal of Oil Compounds in A Crude Oil Contaminated Soil

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of soil science, Agriculture Faculty, Zanjan University , Zanjan, Iran;

2 Department of soil science, Agriculture Faculty, Mohaghegh Ardabili University , Ardabil, , Iran;


Crude oil is one of the most important sources of energy and its large scale production, transmission, consumption and disposal, making it one of the most important and common types of environmental pollution in the worldwide. In order to investigate the effects of phytoremediation and bioremediation on translocation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPHs) in crude oil contaminated soil, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications was conducted. Three rates of crude oil contamination; 0 (C0), 2 (C1) and 4% w/w (C2) and four remediation treatments; Lolium perenne (T1), Pseudomonas putida+Phanerochaete chrysosporium (T2), Lolium perenne+Pseudomonas putida+ Phanerochaete chrysosporium (T3) and control (T0) were applied. At the end of experiment, TPHs concentrations in different depths of soil column (5, 15, 25, 35 and 45 cm depths) were measured. The results showed that the different remediation treatments decreased the TPHs concentration in the root zone and T3 treatment decreased the concentration of TPHs both in C1 and C2 contamination rates by 34 and 59%, respectively. Oil compounds were also observed in the uncontaminated sub layers which indicated oil compounds transported from upper layer to lower layers. The lowest TPHs translocation to sub layers in the soil columns observed in T3 remediation treatment and the highest amount of TPHs translocation to sub layers observed in T2 remediation treatment. Generally, remediation treatments in oil contaminated soil degrade and decrease oil compounds specially in root zone but cannot prevent oil compounds movement and translocation to sub layers. Consequently, oil compounds may enter to groundwater.


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