The Effect of Different Levels of Polyacrylic and Humic Acid on Aggregates Stability and Soil Moisture Content of Saline and Sodic Soils

Document Type : Research Paper


1 M.Sc. Student, Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, , Zanjan Iran

2 zanjan Unevercity

3 Associate Professor, Department of Soil Science, University of Zanjan, Iran.

4 Department of Plastic, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Tehran, Iran


 Saline and sodic soils have a poor structure. The chemical and physical properties of these soils can be modified using various modifiers. Consumption of organic modifiers increases aggregate stability, soil water holding capacity and percentage of usable moisture for the plant. The use of water-soluble polymers and fertilizers containing humic acid is suitable for reducing water use in agriculture and improving soil structure in salt-affected soils. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of polyacrylic and humic acid on aggregate stability and field capacity in saline and sodic soils. This study was conducted using four salinity levels of 10, 20, 30 and 40 dSm-1 and application of two modifiers (humic acid and polyacrylic acid) at 4 levels (0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8% by weight) in factorial arrangement with completely randomized design with three replications in greenhouse conditions. The results showed that the highest values of aggregates stability were at the salinity level of 10 dSm-1 and the level of 0.8% polyacrylic acid (3.13 mm) and humic acid (1.51 mm), respectively. The highest moisture content of the field capacity was measured at the salinity level of 40 dSm-1 and at the level of 0.8% polyacrylic acid (26.65%) and humic acid (25.65%), respectively.


Annabi, M., Houot, S., Francou, C., Poitrenaud, M., and Bissonnais, Y. L. (2007). Soil aggregate stability improvement with urban composts of different maturities. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 71(2), 413-423.
Barzegar, E. (2001). Soil Physics. Ahwaz University Press. 591p. (In Farsi)
Bast, A., Wilcke, W., Graf, F., Lüscher, P., & Gärtner, H. (2015). A simplified and rapid technique to determine an aggregate stability coefficient in coarse grained soils. Catena, 127, 170-176.
Bastian, F., Bouziri, L., Nicolardot, B., and Ranjard, L. (2009). Impact of wheat straw decomposition on successional patterns of soil microbial community structure. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 41(2), 262-275.
Bouyoucos, G. J. (1962). Hydrometer Method Improved for Making Particle Size Analyses of Soils. Agronomy Journal, 54, 464-465.
Bhardwaj, A. K., Mandal, U. K., Bar-Tal, A., Gilboa, A., and Levy, G. J. (2008). Replacing saline–sodic irrigation water with treated wastewater: effects on saturated hydraulic conductivity, slaking, and swelling. Irrigation Science, 26(2), 139-146.
Bhattacharyya, R., Chandra, S., Singh, R. D., Kundu, S., Srivastva, A. K., and Gupta, H. S. (2007). Long-term farmyard manure application effects on properties of a silty clay loam soil under irrigated wheat–soybean rotation. Soil and Tillage Research, 94(2), 386-396.
Bian, X., Zeng, L., Deng, Y., and & Li, X. (2018). The role of superabsorbent polymer on strength and microstructure development in cemented dredged clay with high water content. Polymers, 10(10), 1069.
Bronick, C. J., and Lal, R. (2005). Soil structure and management: a review. Geoderma, 124(1-2), 3-22.
De Gryze, S., Six J., Britsand C. and Merckx R. (2005). A quantification ofshort-term macroaggregate dynamics: influences of wheat residueinput and texture. Soil Biol.Biochem.37: 55-66.
Denef, K., Six, J., Merckx, R., and Paustian, K. (2004). Carbon sequestration in microaggregates of no‐tillage soils with different clay mineralogy. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 68(6), 1935-1944.
Farhpour, M., F. Ghayour, F.A., Sharbaf, H, and Yusefiadeh A. (2005). Comparison of some hydro mulches and oil mulches as adsorbents sand dunes. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research. 12 (2), 121–134.
Fortun, A., J. Benayas and C. Fortun (1990). The effects of fulvic and humic acids on soil aggregation: a micromorphological study. J. Soil Sci. 41:563-572.
Gangwar, K. S., Singh, K. K., Sharma, S. K., and Tomar, O. K. (2006). Alternative tillage and crop residue management in wheat after rice in sandy loam soils of Indo-Gangetic plains. Soil and Tillage Research, 88(1-2), 242-252.
Guenet, B., Neill, C., Bardoux, G., and Abbadie, L. (2010). Is there a linear relationship between priming effect intensity and the amount of organic matter input?. Applied Soil Ecology, 46(3), 436-442.
Han, Y., Yu, X., Yang, P., Li, B., Xu, L., and Wang, C. (2013). Dynamic study on water diffusivity of soil with super-absorbent polymer application. Environmental Earth Sciences, 69(1), 289-296.
Hoffman, G. J. (1980). Guidelines for the reclamation of salt-affected soils, in G. A. O’Connor, ed., Proc. 2nd International American Conference. on Salinity and Water Management Technology, Juarez, Mexico, December 11–12, 1980, 49–64.
Hosseini, F., Mosaddeghi, M. R., Hajabbasi, M. A., and Sabzalian, M. R. (2015). Influence of tall fescue endophyte infection on structural stability as quantified by high energy moisture characteristic in a range of soils. Geoderma, 249, 87-99.
Jessop, R. S., and Stewart, L. W. (1983). Effects of crop residues, soil type and temperature on emergence and early growth of wheat. Plant and Soil, 74(1), 101-109.
Johnson, J. F., Allmaras, R. R., and Reicosky, D. C. (2006). Estimating source carbon from crop residues, roots and rhizodeposits using the national grain‐yield database. Agronomy journal, 98(3), 622-636.
Kiem, R. and Kandeler E..(1997). Stabilization of aggregates by the microbial biomass as affected by soil texture and type. Applied Soil Ecology. 5: 221-230
Kohler, J., Caravaca, F., and Roldán, A. (2010). An AM fungus and a PGPR intensify the adverse effects of salinity on the stability of rhizosphere soil aggregates of Lactuca sativa. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 42(3), 429-434.
Koocheki, A., Nassiri, M., Alizadeh, A. and Ganjali, A. (2010). Modelling the impact of climate change on flowering behaviour of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 7: 583–594. (In Farsi).
Lou, Y., Xu, M., Wang, W., Sun, X., and Zhao, K. (2011). Return rate of straw residue affects soil organic C sequestration by chemical fertilization. Soil and Tillage Research, 113(1), 70-73.
Morlat, R., and Chaussod, R. (2008). Long-term additions of organic amendments in a Loire Valley vineyard. I. Effects on properties of a calcareous sandy soil. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 59(4), 353-363.
Nelson, R. E. (1982). Carbonate and Gypsum. P. 181-197. In Page, A. L. (ed.). Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. (2nd ed.). Agron. Mongor. 9. ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI.
Nelson, D. W. and Sommers, L. E. (1996). Total Carbon, Organic Carbon, and Organic Matter: Loss-on Ignition Method. P. 1004. In Sparks, D. L. et al. (eds.). Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 3. 3rd ed. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI.
Oades, J. M. (1984). Soil organic matter and structural stability: mechanisms and implications for management. Plant Soil.76: 319-337.30.
Piccolo, A., G. Pietramellaraand J.S.C. Mbagwu. (1997). Use of humic substances as soil conditioners to increase aggregate stability. Geoderma, 75: 267-277
Rhoades, J. D. (1996). Salinity: Electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids. Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 3 Chemical Methods, 5, 417-435.
Sebahattin, A. and C. Necdet. (2005). Effect of different levels and application times of humic acid on root and leaf yield and yield components of foraige turnip (Brassica rapaL.). Agron. J. 4: 130-133.
Singh, A., and Kaur, J. (2012). Impact of conservation tillage on soil properties in rice-wheat cropping system. Agriculture Science Research Journal, 2(1), 30-41.
Sivapalan, S. (2001). Effect of polymer on soil water holding capacity and plant water use efficiency. In 10th Australian Agronomy Conference 2001. The Regional Institute.
Tajik, F., Pazira, A., and Rahimmi, H. (1999). Overview of quantitative evaluation methods of aggregate stability. Journal of Soil and Water. 13: 63-74. (In persion)
Thomas, G. W. (1996). Soil pH and soil acidity. Methods of soil analysis: part 3 chemical methods, 5, 475-490.
Tisdall, J. M., and Adem, H. H. (1986). Effect of type of seedbed, type of irrigation, and of a mulch on seedling emergence, growth and yield of maize (Zea mays). Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 26(2), 197-200.
Vaezi, A. R., Akbari, S., and Mohammadi, M.H. (2014). Study of rainfall processes in calcareous soils aggregates under laboratory conditions in NW Zanjan. Iran Iranian Journal of Soil and Water Research, 45(1), 87-94.( In persion)
Wang, J. G., Yang, W., Yu, B., Li, Z. X., Cai, C. F., and Ma, R. M. (2016). Estimating the influence of related soil properties on macro-and micro-aggregate stability in ultisols of south-central China. Catena, 137, 545-553.
Yoder, R. E. (1936). A direct method of aggregate analysis of soils and a study of the physical nature of erosion losses 1. Agronomy Journal, 28(5), 337-351.