Ali, K.H.M. and Karim, O. (2002). Simulation of flow around piers. J. Hydraulic research, IAHR, 40(2), 161-174.
Baykal, C., Sumer, B.M., Fuhrman, D.R., Jacobsen, N.G. and Fredsøe, J. (2015). Numerical investigation of flow and scour around a vertical circular cylinder. Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences, 373(2033).
Brethour, J. and Burnham, J. (2010). Modeling Sediment Erosion and Deposition with the FLOW-3DSedimentation and Scour Model. Flow Science Inc., Technical Note No. 85.
Breusers, H.N.C., Nicollet, G. and Shen, H.W. (1977). Local scour around cylindrical piers, J. Hydraulic Research, 15(3), 211-252
Drysdale, D.M. (2008).The Effectiveness of an Aerofoil Shaped Pier in Reducing Downstream Vortices and Turbulence. University of Southern Queensland.
Duc, B.M. and Rodi, W. (2008). Numerical simulation of contraction scour in an open laboratory channel. J. Hydraulic Engineering, 134(4), 367-377.
Flow Science, Inc., “FLOW-3D User’s Manual”, Flow Science, Inc, 2008.
Guemou, B., Seddini, A. and Ghenim, A.N. (2016). Numerical investigations of the round-nosed bridge pier length effects on the bed shear stress. Progress in Computational Fluid Dynamics, an International Journal, 16(5), 313-321.
Hassanzadeh, Y., Kardan, N. and Hakimzadeh, H. (2015). 3D Numerical studying into combined models of pier shape and slot in reducing the bed shear stresses starter of scouring around the bridge pier. Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 44(4): 39-50 (In Persian).
Kardan, N., Hakimzadeh, H. and Hassanzadeh, Y. (2014). 3D numerical simulation of hydrodynamic parameters around the bridge piers using various turbulence models. Journal of Irrigation Science and Engineering, 37(4): 39-54 (In Persian).
Khosronejad, A., Kang, S. and Sotiropoulos, F. (2012). Experimental and computational investigation of local scour around bridge piers. Advances in Water Resources, 37, 73-85.
Kim, H.S., Nabi, M., Kimura, I. and Shimizu, Y. (2014). Numerical investigation of local scour at two adjacent cylinders. Advances in Water Resources, 70, 131-147.
Melville, B.W. and Chiew, Y.M. (1999). Time scale for local scour at bridge piers. J. Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, 125(1), 59-65.
Mohammadi, R. (2006). Investigating the local scouring phenomenon around cylindrical piers under steady currents using physical models. MS.C Thesis in Marine Structures, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Sanad University of Technology, Tabriz, Iran.
Salaheldin, T.M., Imran, J. and Chaudhry, H. (2004). Numerical modeling of three-dimensional flow field around circular piers. J. Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, 130(2), 91-99.
Smith, H. and Foster, D. (2005). Modeling of flow around a cylinder over a scoured Bed. J. waterway, port, coastal, and ocean engineering, 1(14), 101-118.
Tseng, M.H., Yen, C.L. and Song, C.C.S. (2000). Computation of three-dimensional flow around square and circular piers. International J. for Numerical Methods in Fluids, 34(3), 207-217.
Van Rijn, L.C. (1984). Sediment transport, Part I: bed load transport. J. Hydraulic Engineering, 110(10), 1431-1456.