بررسی وضعیت تنش آبی درختان زیتون با استفاده از شاخص تنش آبی گیاه

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری/ دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

2 دانشیار گروه ابیاری و زهکشی، دانشکده مهندسی علوم آب، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

3 استاد گروه آبیاری و زهکشی، دانشکده مهندسی علوم آب، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

4 استادیار گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

هدف از این مطالعه ارزیابی قابلیت شاخص‏ تنش آبی گیاه (Crop Water Stress Index, CWSI) حاصل از اندازه‏گیری دمای پوشش گیاهی درختان زیتون با استفاده از دماسنج مادون قرمز، در بررسی وضعیت تنش آبی و برنامه‏ریزی آبیاری درخت زیتون بود. برای این منظور رابطه همبستگی میان شاخص تنش آبی گیاه و شاخص‏های محتوای نسبی آب برگ (Relative Water Content, RWC) و رطوبت خاک (Soil Water Content, SWC) تعیین شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل دو رقم زیتون (کرونیکی و T2) و چهار رژیم آبیاری (آبیاری برای تأمین 100، 85، 70 و 55 درصد از نیاز آبی گیاه) بود. نتایج نشان داد که رابطه‏ی خط مبنای بدون تنش در طول دوره‏ی پژوهش و همچنین در طول روز متغیر بود. تغییرات روزانه خط مبنای بدون تنش درختان زیتون عمدتاً به‏دلیل تغییر در عرض از مبدأ خط مبنای بدون تنش بود که بوسیله‏ی تغییرات زاویه‏ی رأس خورشید قابل توصیف است. پس از بررسی ارتباط میان کمبود فشار بخار آب در اتمسفر (Vapor Pressure Deficit, VPD) و اختلاف دمای پوشش گیاهی و دمای هوا ()، رابطه‏ی  برای خط مبنای بدون تنش درختان زیتون در ساعت 12:30 بعد از ظهر تعیین شد. اثر رژیم آبیاری بر شاخص تنش آبی گیاه درختان زیتون کرونیکی و T2 در هیچ یک از اندازه‏گیری‏های انجام شده در طول دوره پژوهش، معنی‏دار نبود؛ بااین‏حال، شاخص تنش آبی گیاه با شاخص‏های محتوای نسبی آب برگ (کرونیکی:**67/0r2= و : **88/0r2=) و درصد جرمی رطوبت خاک (کرونیکی:**74/0r2= و : **78/0r2=) همبستگی معنی‏دار داشت. بنابراین، شاخص تنش آبی گیاه، شاخص مناسبی از وضعیت تنش آبی درختان زیتون کرونیکی و T2 است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of Water Stress Status of Olive Trees Using Crop Water Stress Index

نویسندگان [English]

  • Azimeh Asgari 1
  • Abdolrahim Hooshmand 2
  • Saeed BoroomandNasab 3
  • Shohre Zivdar 4
1 Ph. D. student, irrigation and drainage department, Water science College, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz
2 Associate Professor, Irrigation and Drainage Department, Water Science Faculty, Shahid Chamran University of Ahwaz, Ahwaz, Iran.
3 Full Professor of Irrigation and drainage department, Water science faculty, Shahid Chamran University of Ahwaz, Ahwaz, Iran
4 Assistant professor of Horticulture science, Agriculture College, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz
چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to assess the crop water stress index (CWSI), derived from leaf temperature using infrared thermometer measurements, to investigate the water stress status and irrigation timing of olive trees. Fpr this purpose a regression function was determined between crop water stress index and relative water content of leaf (RWC) and soil water content (SWC). The experimental treatments involved two olive cultivars (Koroneiki and T2) and four water regimes (irrigation of 100, 85, 70 and 55% of crop water requirement). The results showed that the non-water stressed baseline is varied throughout the study period as well as during the day. The daily variations of non-water stressed baseline were mainly due to variations in the intercept of the non-water stressed baseline that can be explained by variations in zenith solar angle. After investigating the relationship between vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and the difference between crop and air temperature (), the equation of Tc-Ta = -0.45 VPD+1.06, r2 = 0.99 was determined for the non-water stressed baseline of the olive trees at 12:30 pm. The effect of irrigation regime on water stress index of Kroneiki and  olive trees was not significant in none of the measurements during the study period. However, crop water stress index was significantly correlated with relative water content (Kroneiki: r2=0.67**, : r2=0.88**) and soil water content (Kroneiki: r2=0.74**, : r2=0.78**). Therefore, the crop water stress index is a good indicator of the water stress status of the Koroneiki and T2 olive trees.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Crop water stress index
  • Infrared thermometer
  • Non-water stress baseline
  • Olive Tree
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