Evaluation of Iron Content in Calcareous Soil Treated With Bacteria Producing Siderophore under Drought Stress

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Engineering and Agriculture Technology , Collage of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Engineering and Agriculture Technology ,University of Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Engineering and Agriculture Technology, University of Tehran,Iran


Despite the abundance of iron in the earth's crust and soil, this nutrient is not usually available for plants in calcareous soil with high pH. In the present study four superior isolates with alternative physiological traits (No. 3, 8, 20 and 23) isolated from 10 soil samples for producing siderophore and their contribution in solubilizing insoluble iron-containing compounds in calcareous soil were evaluated. Results showed that in spite of higher halo diameter to colony diameter of isolate No. 23 in CAS agar medium (3.46mm) at soil incubation test, DTPA-extractable iron using isolates No. 3 and 20 was greater than the ones in isolate No. 23 as 10.7 and 14.67 percent, respectively. Greatest amount of DTPA-extractable iron in the soil sample was obtained during 40-days incubation. Molecular test showed that isolate 20 was 99 percent similar to the strain Bacillus Sporothernodurans. Biochemical tests also revealed that isolate 8 probably belong to Entrobacteriaceae family and isolates 3 and 23 belong to Pseudomonas Genus.


Main Subjects

Abbas-Zadeh, P., Saleh-Rastin, N., Asadi-Rahmani, H., Khavazi, K., Soltani, A., Shoary-Nejati, A. R. and Miransari, M. (2010). Plant growth-promoting activities of fluorescent pseudomonads, isolated from the Iranian soils. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 32(2), 281-288.
Anjum, M., Zahir, Z., Arshad, M. and Ashraf, M. (2011). Isolation and screening of rhizobia for auxin biosynthesis and growth promotion of mung bean (Vigna radiate L.) seedlings under axenic conditions. Soil Environment, 30 (1), 18- 26.
Biari, A., Gholami, A. and Rahmani, H.A. 2008. Growth Promoting and Enhanced Nutrient Uptake of Maize (Zea mays L.) by Application of Plant Growth Promoting Rizobacteria in Arid Region of Iran. Journal of Biological Sciences, 8 (6), 1015-1020.
Braccini, A.L., Dan, L.G.M., Piccinin, G.G., Albrecht, L.P., Barbosa, M.C. and Ortiz, A.H.T. (2012). Seed inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense, associated with the use of bioregulators in maize. Revista Caatinga, 25 (2), 58–64.
Bric, J. M., Bostock, R. M., and Silverstone, S. E. (1991). Rapid in situ assay for indoleacetic acid production by bacteria immobilized on a nitrocellulose membrane. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 57(2), 535-538.
Compant, S., Duffy, B., Nowak, J., Clément, C. and Barka, E.A. (2005). Use of plant growth-promoting bacteria for biocontrol of plant diseases: principles, mechanisms of action, and future prospects. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 71, 4951-4959.
Cornell, R.M. and Schwertmann, U. (2003). The iron oxides, 2nd edn. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim.
Crowley, D.E. (2006). Microbial siderophores in the plant rhizospheric.In: Barton, L.L. and Abadı´a, J. (Eds) Iron nutrition in plants and rhizospheric microorganisms, Springer, Netherlands. 169–198.
Das, S., and Barooah, M. (2018). Characterization of siderophore producing arsenic-resistant Staphylococcus sp. strain TA6 isolated from contaminated groundwater of Jorhat, Assam and its possible role in arsenic geocycle. BMC Microbiology, 18, 104.
El-Hawary, M.I., El-hawary, I.F., El-Ghamry, A.M. and El-Naggar, E. (2002). Effect of application of biofertilizer on the yield and NPK uptake of some wheat genotypes as affected by the biological properties of soil. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 5(11), 1181-1185.
Epstein, E. and Bloom, A.J. (2005). Mineral Nutrition of Plants: Principles and Perspectives. 2nd Ed. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, USA.
Ferreira, C.M.H., Vilas-Boas, Â., Sousa, C.A. Soares, H.M.V.M. and Soares, E.V. (2019). Comparison of five bacterial strains producing siderophores with ability to chelate iron under alkaline conditions. AMB Express, 9, 78.
Hamidi, A., Asgharzadeh, A., Chaokan, R. and Khalvati, M.A. (2011). Maize (Zea mays L.) seed Biofortification by plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB). International journal of Agronomy and Plant Production, 2, 194-205.    
Khosravi, H., Samar, S.M., Fallahi, E., Davoodi, H. and Shahabian, M. (2009). Inoculation of Golden Delicious' apple trees on M9 root stock with Azotobacter improves nutrient uptake and growth indices. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 32, 946-953.
Meyer, D.M. (2000). Pyoverdins: pigments siderophores and potential taxonomic markers of fluorescent pseudomonads species. Arch Microbiology, 174, 135- 142
Mohammadi, R., Olamaee, M., Ghorbani Nasrabadi, R. and Chakeralhossaini, M.R. (2010). Effects of urea fertilizer, organic matter and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on N uptake and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Alvand). Journal of Plant Production, 17, 77-92.
Parry, J.M., Turnbull, P.C.B. and Gibson, J.R. (1983). A colour atlas of Bacillus species: Wolfe Medical Publications Ltd.
Patten, C.L. and Glick, B.R (2002). Role of pseudomonas putida indoleacetic acid in development of the host plant root system. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 68, 3795- 3801
Rashid, M.S., Khalil, N., Ayub, S., Alam, S. and Latif, F. (2004). Organic acids production and phosphate solubilization by phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) under in vitro conditions. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 7, 187- 196
Saha, M., Sarkar, S., Sarkar, B., Sharma, B. K., Bhattacharjee, S., and Tribedi, P. (2016). Microbial siderophores and their potential applications: a review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23(5), 3984-3999.
Sambrook, J., Russell, D. W., and Russell, D. W. (2001). Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual (3-volume set). Immunol, 49, 895-909.
Sarode, P.D., Rane, M.P., Chaudhari, B.L. and Chincholkar, S.B. (2007). Screening for siderophore producing PGPR from black cotton soils of North Maharashtra. Current trends in Biotechnology and pharmacy, 1(1), 96- 105.
Schwyn, B. and Neilands, J.B. (1987). Universal chemical assay for the detection and determination of siderophores. Analytical Biochemistry, 160, 47-56.
Sharma, A. and Johria, B.N. (2003). Growth promoting influence of siderophore- producing Pseudomonas Strains GRP3A and PRS9 in maize (Zea mays L.) under iron limiting conditions. Microbiological Research, 158(3), 243- 248.
Sparks, D.L. (1996). Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 3. Chemical Methods, Soil Science Society of American, Inc. American Society of Agronomy, Inc, Madison Wisconsin, USA.
Sperber, J. I. (1958). The incidence of apatite-solubilizing organisms in the rhizosphere and soil. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 9(6), 778-781.
Suresh, A., Pallavi, P., Srinivas, P., Kumar, V. P. and Reddy, S.R. (2010). Plant growth promoting activities of fluorescent pseudomonads associated with some crop plants. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 4(14), 1491-1494.
Tavaria, F.K. and Zuberers, D.A. (1998). effect of low CO2 on colonization of maize roots by a genetically altered pseudomonas putida (L1019). Biology and Fertility of Soils, 26, 43- 49