Evaluation of Hydrological and Meteorological Drought Relationship and Reservoir Impacts (Case Study: Zayandeh Rood River Basin)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ms.C.Student of Irrigaion and drainage- Water Engineerimg- Faculty of AGriculture- Arak Unicersity-Arak-Iran.

2 Assistant Professor-Water Engineering-Faculty of Agriculture-Arak University-Arak- Iran

3 Assistant Professor-Animal Science-Faculty of Agriculture-Arak University-Arak- Iran


Regarding the occurrence of hydrological drought after the meteorological drought, determining the relationship between these two droughts is necessary. In this study, the Zayandehrood Basin in the central part of Iran was selected as the study area. Selected stations in this basin; Damane Fereydan station, Ghaleh Shahrokh station (upstream of dam) and Zamankhan bridge station (downstream of dam) were considered according to their location and trend of precipitation data. Initially, on the basis of monthly rainfall and flow data from 1360 to 1389, the standard precipitation index (SPI) and the standard flow index (SSI) (Meteorological droughts and hydrological drought, respectively), each with a three-month period were calculated. Then using the Run theory, the meteorological and hydrological drought characteristics, including the duration and magnitude of drought were identified. In the following, using R software and programming in it, the best model was sought to investigate the relationship between meteorological and hydrological drought. According to the number of samples, the model was also validated. The relationship in which a hydrological drought reacts to the meteorological drought is created using a nonlinear function model in Qaleh Shahrokh and Zaman Khan Bridge stations, which show the condition without the reservoir and the condition affected by the reservoir, respectively. The results showed that there is a nonlinear relationship between hydrological drought and meteorological drought and the threshold at which a hydrological drought begins to react to meteorological drought is achieved with respect to the nonlinear function model. The exponential function model with the appropriate validation indexes as well as high coefficients in both stations was selected as the best model. The duration and magnitude of hydrological drought at Qaleh Shahrokh station is 1.7 and 1.9, respectively. Also, the duration and magnitude of this drought at the Zaman Khan Bridge (under the influence of the dam reservoir) is 0.55 and 1.45. Originally, the time of occurrence of hydrological drought in the downstream of the dam will be occurred faster. These findings indicated that the operational activities of Zayandeh Rud reservoir significantly reduced the duration and amount of hydrological drought as compared to non-reservoir conditions.


Alavi Nia, H., Sadatinejad, j. and Abdullah, Kh. (2011). Provide a model for prediction of hydrological drought in Karoon-1 basin. Environmental Erosion Research Journal, 4(1), 45-56. (In Farsi)
Buttafuoco, G., Caloiero, T. and Coscarelli, R. (2015). Analyses of Drought Events in Calabria (Southern Italy) Using Standardized Precipition Index. Water Resource Manage, 29(2), 557-573.
Kooshki, R., Rahimi, M., Amiri, M. and Dasturani, J. (2016). Investigation of the Relationship between Meteorological and Hydrological Drought Time in the Karkheh Basin. Journal of Ecohydrology, 4(3), 687-698. (In Farsi)
Littlewood, L. G., Clarke, R. T., Collischonn, W. and Croke, B. F. W. (2007). Predicting daily streamflow using rainfall forecasts, a simple loss module and unit hydrographs: Two Brazilian catchments. Environmental Modelling and Software, 22(5), 1229-1239.
McKee, T. B., Doesken, N. J. and Kleist, J. (1993). The relationship of drought frequency and duration to time scales. In: Proceedings of the 8th Conference on Applied Climatology. American Meteorology Society, Boston, pp. 179–184.
Nash, J. E. and Sutcliffe, J. V. (1970). River flow forecasting through conceptual models I: a discussion of principles. Journal of Hydrology, 10(2), 282–290.
Shao,Y. N., Bao, Y. D., He, Y., (2011). Visible/near-infrared spectra for linear and nonlinear calibrations: a case to predict soluble solids contents and ph value in peach. Food Bioprocess Technol, 4(8), 1376–1383.
Van Loon, A. and Laaha, G. (2016). Hydrological drought severity explained by climate and catchment characteristics. Journal of Hydrology, 49(6), 3–14.
Wu, J., Chen, X., Gao, L., Yao, H., Chen, Y. and Liu, M. (2016). Response of Hydrological Drought to Meteorological Drought under the Influence of Large Reservoir. Journal of  Meteorology, 56(2), 1-11.
Wu, J., Chen, X., Yao, H., Gao, L., Chen, Y. and Li, M. (2017). Non-linear relationship of hydrological drought responding to meteorological drought and impact of a large reservoir. Journal of Hydrology, 551(4), 495–507.
Yevjevich, V. (1967). An objective approach to definitions and investigations of continental hydrologic droughts. Journal of Meteorology, 36(5), 41-50.
Zhu, Y., Wang, W., Singh, V. and Liu, Y. (2016). Combined use of meteorological drought indices at multi-time scales for improving hydrological drought detection. Science of the Total Environment, 571(4), 1058-1068.