بررسی زغال زیستی اصلاح شده، نانورس و پلی‌وینیل استات بر تثبیت خاک و کنترل فرسایش بادی خاک شنی و شنی‌لومی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران.

2 دانشیار، گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، ایران

چکیده

فرسایش بادی یکی از مهم­ترین مسائل زیست­محیطی جهان محسوب می­شود. این پدیده می­تواند اثرات مخربی بر کیفیت آب، هوا و سلامت انسان داشته باشد.در سال­های اخیر استفاده از خاک­پوش در کنترل فرسایش بادی و تثبیت خاک مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. هدف از انجام این پژوهش استفاده از نانورس مونت­موریلونایت، پلیمر پلی­وینیل­استات و زغال زیستی کاه گندم به منظور دستیابی به یک خاک­پوش طبیعی برای کنترل فرسایش بادی در خاک­های شنی و شنی­لومی بصورت آزمایشگاهی با آزمایش­های تونل باد بود. به این منظور آزمایش فاکتوریل به­صورت طرح کاملاً تصادفی در سه تکرار اجرا شد. فاکتورها شامل (1) نوع خاکپوش (نانورس مونت­موریلونایت، پلیمر پلی­وینیل­استات و زغال زیستی کاه گندم)، (2) غلظت خاکپوش (نانو رس: 0، 16 و 32 ، پلیمر پلی­وینیل­استات: 0، 8 و 16 و زغال زیستی: 0، 65 و 200 گرم بر متر مربع) و (3) زمان (21، 42 و 63 روز) بودند. دو نمونه خاک (شنی و شنی­لومی) از کانون گرد و غبار جنوب شرق اهواز (کانون شماره 4) نمونه­برداری شد. سینی­های آزمایش (با ابعاد 50، 300 و 500 میلی­متر) تا لبه با خاک­ پر شدند. سپس، سوسپانسیون نانو­رس و پلی­وینیل­استات به­صورت یکنواخت روی خاک اسپری شد.  بیوچار نیز به­صورت یکنواخت با خاک­ها مخلوط شد. پس از گذشت مدت زمان مورد نظر سینی­ها در تونل با سرعت باد 20 متر بر ثانیه به مدت 5 دقیقه قرار داده شدند و سپس برخی ویژگی­های فیزیکی و مکانیکی خاک (پایداری خاک­دانه­ها، مقاومت نفوذی و مقاومت برشی) و تغییرات آن­ها نسبت به زمان اندازه­گیری شد. مقدار هدررفت خاک در زمان اول در خاک شنی در تیمار نانورس، پلیمر و زغال زیستی نسبت به شاهد به­ترتیب 98، 97 و 43 درصد و در خاک شنی­لومی 97، 95 و 58 درصد کاهش یافت. بیشترین میانگین وزنی قطر خاک­دانه، مقاومت نفوذی و برشی خاک در تیمار نانورس به­دست آمد. به­طور کلی نتایج نشان داد که کاربرد خاک­پوش­های نانورس، پلیمر و زغال زیستی به­ترتیب سبب کاهش معنی­دار فرسایش بادی در زمان­های مختلف در مقایسه با خاک شاهد شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of Modified Biochar, Nanoclay and Polyvinyl Acetate on Soil Stabilization and Wind Erosion Control of Sandy and Loamy Sand Soils

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Nooralivand 1
  • Ahmad Farrokhian Firouzi 2
1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Soil Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Department of soil science, Faculty of Agriculture , Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Wind erosion is one of the most important environmental issues in the world. This phenomenon could have hazardous effect on weather, water quality and human health. In recent years, the use of mulch has been considered for controlling wind erosion and soil stabilization. The aim of this study was to use Montmorillonite Nano clay, Polyvinyl Acetate polymer and wheat straw biochar as a natural mulch for controlling wind erosion and soil stabilization. A factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications. The factors included (1) mulch (three types), (2) mulch concentration (Nanoclay: 0, 16 and 32, Polyvinyl Acetate polymer: 0, 8, and 16 and biochar: 0, 65 and 200 g/m2) and (3) time duration (21, 42 and 63 days). Two soil samples (sandy and loamy sand) were collected from the dust source of southeast of Ahvaz (center Number.4). Trays with a 500×300×50 mm were filled by the soils. Then, the emulsion of Nanoclay, and Polyvinyl Acetate were sprayed uniformly on the soil surface. The biochar also was uniformly mixed with the soils. The trays were placed on wind tunnel channel and wind erosion test was performed at a speed of 20 m/s for 5 minutes. Then, aggregate stability (MWD), penetration resistance (PR), shear strength (SS) and their changes were measured at all duration times. The amount of soil loss at first duration time in nanoclay, polymer and biochar treatments were decreased in sandy soil 98%, 97% and 43.65%, and in loamy sand soil 97%, 95% and 58%, respectively as compared to the control treatment. Maximum MWD, PR and SS was obtained in the nanoclay treatment. In general, the results showed that the use of nanoclay, polymer and biochar materials significantly reduced wind erosion at different duration times, compared to the control treatment.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • aggregate stability
  • Mulch
  • shear strength
  • Wind tunnel
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