ارزیابی رفتار کادمیم در یک خاک آهکی متأثر از بیوچارهای بقایای پوست گردو پوشش داده شده با نانو ذرات آهن صفر ظرفیتی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه پژوهشی محیط زیست، پژوهشگاه علوم و تکنولوژی پیشرفته و علوم محیطی، دانشگاه تحصیلات تکمیلی صنعتی و فناوری پیشرفته، کرمان، ایران

چکیده

استفاده از سطوح بیوچار به عنوان بستری مناسب برای قرارگیری نانوذرات آهن صفر ظرفیتی می­تواند علاوه بر افزایش پایداری و کاهش آگلومراسیون این نانوذرات، سبب افزایش فرایندهای جذبی بیوچار برای آلاینده­های مختلف در محیط‌زیست شود. در این پژوهش، بقایای پوست گردو (R)، بیوچار بقایای پوست گردو (B)، و بیوچار بقایای پوست گردو پوشش داده شده با نانوذرات آهن صفر ظرفیتی (BN)، به صورت جداگانه در سه سطح (5/0، 2، و 4%) به یک خاک آهکی آلوده شده به کادمیم (200 میلی­گرم کادمیم بر کیلوگرم خاک)، اضافه و پس از انجام فرایند خوابانیدن (90 روز)، رفتار کادمیم در خاک با استفاده از آزمایشات سینتیک واجذب و شکل‌های شیمیایی، مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد، کاربرد BN به طور قابل ملاحظه­ای نسبت به دو جاذب دیگر سبب کاهش واجذبی کادمیم (کاهش 69/59، 16/80 و 5/80 % به ترتیب در سطوح 5/0، 2، و 4%) در مقایسه با نمونه شاهد شد. مقادیر پایین از پارامتر Q1 (بخش لبایل کادمیم) در مدل دو مرحله­ای مرتبه اول برازش داده شده بر داده­های دوفازی واجذبی کادمیم در خاک‌های تیمار شده، نشان از اثر بهینه بهسازها (به ویژه BN) در کاهش بخش قابل دسترس کادمیم نسبت به نمونه شاهد داشت. کاربرد هر سه جاذب سبب کاهش درصد نسبی دو شکل متحرک تبادلی و کربناتی شده بود که این کاهش در خاک­های تیمار شده با BN (سطوح 2 و 4%) به صورت مشهودی بیش از سایر تیمارها بود. کاهش فاکتور تحرک کادمیم از 2/68% در نمونه شاهد به 51/35، 83/43 و 1/54% (میانگین سه سطح) به ترتیب در نمونه­های تیمار شده با BN، B و R نشان از اثربخشی بالای بیوچارهای پوشش ­داده شده در تثبیت کادمیم نسبت به B و R داشت. بر اساس نتایج این تحقیق، بیوچارهای پوشش داده شده با نانوذرات آهن صفرظرفیتی، به دلیل تجمیع فرایندهای تثبیت دو ماده بیوچار (فرایندهای تبادل یونی، کمپلکس سطحی و رسوب سطحی یا رسوب مجدد) و نانوذرات آهن صفر ظرفیتی (فرایندهای جذب و تشکیل کمپلکس)، راندمان بالاتری در کاهش واجذبی و تحرک کادمیم در خاک آهکی مورد مطالعه نسبت به بیوچارهای غیرپوشش داده شده، نشان دادند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Cadmium Behavior in a Calcareous Soil as Affected by Walnut-Shell Residues Biochars Coated by Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron

نویسنده [English]

  • Mahboub Saffari
Assistant Professor of Environment Department, Institute of Science and High Technology and Environmental Sciences, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran
چکیده [English]

Using biochar surfaces as a suitable substrate for placing nano-scale zero-valent iron (nZVI), in addition to increase the stability and reduce the agglomeration of these nanoparticles, could improve the biochar sorption mechanisms for various pollutants in environment. In this research, walnut-shell residues (R), walnut-shell residues biochar(B), and walnut-shell residues biochar coated by nZNI (BN) were applied to a Cd-spiked (200 mg Cd kg-1 soil) calcareous soil at three levels (0.5, 2, and 4%); and after incubation process (90 days), soil Cd behavior was examined using desorption kinetic and chemical fractionation experiments. The results showed that application of BN compared with two other amendments significantly reduced Cd desorption (59.69%, 80.16% and 80.5%, respectively, at 0.5, 2 and 4% levels) compared to the control sample. The low values ​​of the Q1 parameter (labile form of Cd) in two-step first-order reactions model fitted on Cd two-phase desorption data in treated soils indicated the positive effect of amendments (in particular BN) on reducing the available Cd compared to the control sample. Application of all three amendments had reduced the relative percentage of carbonate and exchangeable forms, as these reductions in BN-treated soils (2 and 4% levels) were obviously more than the other treatments. Reduction of Cd mobility factor from 68.2% (in control sample) to 35.51, 43.83 and 54.1% in BN-, B-, and R-treated samples, respectively, showed the high effectiveness of BN as compared to B and R treated soils. Based on the results of this study, the biochars coated with nZVI, due to the integration of stabilization mechanisms of biochar (processes of ionic exchange, superficial complexes and surface precipitation or co-perception) and nZVI (processes of sorption and complex formation), showed a higher efficiency on Cd stabilization in soil samples compared to the none-coated biochar and raw organic residues.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Coated biochar
  • Cadmium
  • Desorption
  • Chemical forms
Ahmad, M., Rajapaksha, A. U., Lim, J. E., Zhang, M., Bolan, N., Mohan & Ok, Y. S. (2014). Biochar as a sorbent for contaminant management in soil and water: a review. Chemosphere, 99, 19-33.

Chatterjee, S., Lim, S. R., & Woo, S. H. (2010). Removal of Reactive Black 5 by zero-valent iron modified with various surfactants. Chemical Engineering Journal, 160(1), 27-32.

Cui, X., Hao, H., Zhang, C., He, Z., & Yang, X. (2016). Capacity and mechanisms of ammonium and cadmium sorption on different wetland-plant derived biochars. Science of the Total Environment, 539, 566-575.

Foo, K. Y., & Hameed, B. H. (2009). An overview of landfill leachate treatment via activated carbon adsorption process. Journal of hazardous materials, 171(1-3), 54-60.

Hamzenejad Taghlidabad, R., & Sepehr, E. (2018). Heavy metals immobilization in contaminated soil by grape-pruning-residue biochar. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 64(8), 1041-1052.

Hamzenejad, R., Sepehr, E., Samadi, A., Rasouli-Sadaghiani, M.H., Khodaverdiloo, H. (2018). Effect of Apple Pruning Residue Biochar on Chemical Forms, Mobility Factor Index (MF) and Reduced Partition Index (IR) of Heavy Metals in a Contaminated Soil. Water & Soil Science, 28(3), 65-78. (In Farsi)

Hamzenejad, R., Sepehr, E., Samadi, A., Rasouli-Sadaghiani, M.H., Khodaverdiloo, H. (2018). Effect of Nano Zero Valent Iron Particles (nZVI) on Mobility and Chemical Forms of Cadmium and Lead in Soil. Iranian Journal of Soil & Water Research, 49(3), 549-559. (In Farsi)

Jalali, M., & Rostaii, L. (2011). Cadmium distribution in plant residues amended calcareous soils as a function of incubation time. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 57(2), 137-148.

Kandpal, G., Srivastava, P. C., & Ram, B. (2005). Kinetics of desorption of heavy metals from polluted soils: Influence of soil type and metal source. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 161(1-4), 353-363.

Khanmirzaei, A., Bazargan, K., Amir Moezzi, A., Richards, B. K., & Shahbazi, K. (2013). Single and sequential extraction of cadmium in some highly calcareous soils of southwestern Iran. Journal of soil science and plant nutrition, 13(1), 153-164.

Kirpichtchikova, T. A., Manceau, A., Spadini, L., Panfili, F., Marcus, M. A., & Jacquet, T. (2006). Speciation and solubility of heavy metals in contaminated soil using X-ray microfluorescence, EXAFS spectroscopy, chemical extraction, and thermodynamic modeling. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 70(9), 2163-2190.

Kumpiene, J., Lagerkvist, A., & Maurice, C. (2008). Stabilization of As, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in soil using amendments–a review. Waste management, 28(1), 215-225.

Li, X. Q., & Zhang, W. X. (2007). Sequestration of metal cations with zerovalent iron nanoparticles a study with high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HR-XPS). The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 111(19), 6939-6946.

Liu, X., Song, Q., Tang, Y., Li, W., Xu, J., Wu, J. & Brookes, P. C. (2013). Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in soil–vegetable system: a multi-medium analysis. Science of the Total Environment, 463, 530-540.

Moazallahi, M., Baghernejad, M., Jafari Haghighi, M., & Saffari, M. (2017). Stabilization of lead in two artificial contaminated calcareous soils using stabilized nanoscale zero-valent iron particles with/without chelating agents. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 63(4), 565-577.

Peng, X., Liu, X., Zhou, Y., Peng, B., Tang, L., Luo, L. & Zeng, G. (2017). New insights into the activity of a biochar supported nanoscale zerovalent iron composite and nanoscale zero valent iron under anaerobic or aerobic conditions. RSC Advances, 7(15), 8755-8761.

Polettini, A., Pomi, R., & Rolle, E. (2007). The effect of operating variables on chelant-assisted remediation of contaminated dredged sediment. Chemosphere, 66(5), 866-877.

Qian, L., Zhang, W., Yan, J., Han, L., Chen, Y., Ouyang, D., & Chen, M. (2017). Nanoscale zero-valent iron supported by biochars produced at different temperatures: Synthesis mechanism and effect on Cr (VI) removal. Environmental pollution, 223, 153-160.

Quan, G., Sun, W., Yan, J., & Lan, Y. (2014). Nanoscale zero-valent iron supported on biochar: characterization and reactivity for degradation of acid orange 7 from aqueous solution. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 225(11), 2195.

Rajapaksha, A. U., Chen, S. S., Tsang, D. C., Zhang, M., Vithanage, M., Mandal, S. & Ok, Y. S. (2016). Engineered/designer biochar for contaminant removal/immobilization from soil and water: potential and implication of biochar modification. Chemosphere, 148, 276-291.

Saffari, M. (2018a). Chemical stabilization of some heavy metals in an artificially multi-elements contaminated soil, using rice husk biochar and coal fly ash. Pollution, 4(4), 547-562.

Saffari, M. (2018b). Response surface methodological approach for optimizing the removal of cadmium from aqueous solutions using pistachio residues biochar supported/non-supported by nanoscalezero-valent iron. Main Group Metal Chemistry, 41(5-6), 167-181.

Saffari, M., Karimian, N., Ronaghi, A., Yasrebi, J., & Ghasemi-Fasaei, R. (2015). Stabilization of nickel in a contaminated calcareous soil amended with low-cost amendments. Journal of soil science and plant nutrition, 15(4), 896-913.

Saffari, M., Karimian, N., Ronaghi, A., Yasrebi, J., & Ghasemi-Fasaei, R. (2016). Stabilization of lead as affected by various amendments and incubation time in a calcareous soil. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 62(3), 317-337.

Saffari, M., Yasrebi, J., Karimian, N., & Shan, X. (2009). Evaluation of three sequential extraction methods for fractionation of zinc in calcareous and acidic soils. Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 4(7), 848-857.

Sajadi Tabar, S., & Jalali, M. (2013). Kinetics of Cd release from some contaminated calcareous soils. Natural resources research, 22(1), 37-44.

Santos, S., Costa, C. A., Duarte, A. C., Scherer, H. W., Schneider, R. J., Esteves, V. I., & Santos, E. B. (2010). Influence of different organic amendments on the potential availability of metals from soil: A study on metal fractionation and extraction kinetics by EDTA. Chemosphere, 78(4), 389-396.

Sharma, R. K., Wooten, J. B., Baliga, V. L., Lin, X., Chan, W. G., & Hajaligol, M. R. (2004). Characterization of chars from pyrolysis of lignin. Fuel, 83(11-12), 1469-1482.

Shi, H. S., & Kan, L. L. (2009). Leaching behavior of heavy metals from municipal solid wastes incineration (MSWI) fly ash used in concrete. Journal of hazardous materials, 164(2-3), 750-754.

Singh, B., Singh, B. P., & Cowie, A. L. (2010). Characterisation and evaluation of biochars for their application as a soil amendment. Soil Research, 48(7), 516-525.

Singh, J. P., Karwasra, S. P. S., & Singh, M. (1988). Distribution and forms of copper, iron, manganese, and zinc in calcareous soils of India. Soil Science, 146(5), 359-366.

Shu, H. Y., Chang, M. C., Chen, C. C., & Chen, P. E. (2010). Using resin supported nano zero-valent iron particles for decoloration of Acid Blue 113 azo dye solution. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 184(1-3), 499-505.

Sohi, S. P., Krull, E., Lopez-Capel, E., & Bol, R. (2010). A review of biochar and its use and function in soil. In Advances in agronomy (Vol. 105, pp. 47-82). Academic Press.

Su, H., Fang, Z., Tsang, P. E., Fang, J., & Zhao, D. (2016). Stabilisation of nanoscale zero-valent iron with biochar for enhanced transport and in-situ remediation of hexavalent chromium in soil. Environmental Pollution, 214, 94-100.

Sunkara, B., Zhan, J., He, J., McPherson, G. L., Piringer, G., & John, V. T. (2010). Nanoscale zerovalent iron supported on uniform carbon microspheres for the in situ remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2(10), 2854-2862.

Tan, X. F., Liu, Y. G., Gu, Y. L., Xu, Y., Zeng, G. M., Hu, X. J., ... & Li, J. (2016). Biochar-based nano-composites for the decontamination of wastewater: a review. Bioresource technology, 212, 318-333.

Yan, J., Han, L., Gao, W., Xue, S., & Chen, M. (2015). Biochar supported nanoscale zerovalent iron composite used as persulfate activator for removing trichloroethylene. Bioresource technology, 175, 269-274.

Yang, X., Liu, J., McGrouther, K., Huang, H., Lu, K., Guo, X. & Wang, H. (2016). Effect of biochar on the extractability of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) and enzyme activity in soil. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23(2), 974-984.

Zhang, W. X. (2003). Nanoscale iron particles for environmental remediation: an overview. Journal of nanoparticle Research, 5(3-4), 323-332.

Zhou, Y., Gao, B., Zimmerman, A. R., Chen, H., Zhang, M., & Cao, X. (2014). Biochar-supported zerovalent iron for removal of various contaminants from aqueous solutions. Bioresource technology, 152, 538-542.

Zhu, S., Ho, S. H., Huang, X., Wang, D., Yang, F., Wang, L., & Ma, F. (2017). Magnetic nanoscale zerovalent iron assisted biochar: interfacial chemical behaviors and heavy metals remediation performance. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 5(11), 9673-9682.