Analysis and Simulation of Vetiver Grass Effect on Reducing Salinity and Sodium of Soil Using HYDRUS-1D Model

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Associate prof. of Water Eng. Dept., College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

2 Former MS student of Water Eng. Dept., College of Agriculture, SHiraz University, Shiraz, Iran


Salt accumulation in the soil profile and root zone has significant effect on quality and quantity of agricultural products. Vetiver grass is one of the most important plants which is resistant to salinity and compatible to different situations. The solute transport models in salinity studies plays an important role in time and cost saving. This research was performed to find out the effects of different irrigation salinities on vetiver grass and also to investigate the effect of Vetiver grass in controlling soil salinity and sodicity. In addition, the distribution of salinity and sodium in the soil profile was measured and simulated by HYDRUS-1D model. In this research five salinity irrigation levels including 0.68, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 dS/m were applied and soil samples were taken from depth of 0-90 cm. The HYDRUS-1D model was calibrated using 6 dS/m irrigation saline water data and validated using the other salinity levels data. The results showed that the model simulates the soil salinity (ECe) values properly in 4, 6, 8 and 10 dS/m treatments. The prediction of soil salinity in treatments 0.68 and 2 dS/m was close to the reality, with the exception of surface layer. The results of sodium concentration in the soil profile showed that this model didn't simulate the soil sodium with good accuracy, especially in the soil surface and the predicted valued were underestimated. The reason, such as salinity, is the lack of proper prediction of sodium in the top layer.


Main Subjects

Abbasi, F., 2017. Advanced Soil Physics. University of Tehran. (In Farsi)
Hamed Ebrahimian, Abdolmajid Liaghat, Masoud Parsinejad, Enrique Playán, Fariborz Abbasi, Maryam Navabian, Borja Lattore, 2013. Optimum design of alternate and conventional furrow fertigation to minimize nitrate loss. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering 139 (11), 911-921.
Akhzari, D., Bidgoli, R.D. (2013). Effect of drought and salinity stresses on growth of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides Stapf). World Applied Sciences Journal 24, 390-394
Azad, N., Behmanesh, J., Rezaverdinejad, V., Abbasi, F. Navabian, M. (2018). Developing an optimization model in drip fertigation management to consider environmental issues and supply plant requirements. Agricultural water management 208, 344-356.
Corwin, D.L., Rhoades, J.D., Simunek, J. (2007). Leaching requirement for soil salinity control: Steady-state versus transient models. Agricultural Water Management 90 (3), 165-180.
De Vos, J., Raats, P., Feddes, R. (2002). Chloride transport in a recently reclaimed Dutch polder. Journal of Hydrology 257, 59-77.
Dousset, S., Thevenot, M., Pot, V., Šimunek, J., Andreux, F. (2007). Evaluating equilibrium and non-equilibrium transport of bromide and isoproturon in disturbed and undisturbed soil columns. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 94, 261-276.
Ebrahimian, H., Liaghat, A., Parsinejad, M., Abbasi, F., Navabian, M. (2012). Comparison of one-and two-dimensional models to simulate alternate and conventional furrow fertigation. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering 138 (10), 929-938.
Jayashree, S., Rathinamala, J., Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P. (2011). Determination of heavy metal removal efficiency of chrysopogon zizanioides(Vetiver) using textile wastewater contaminated soil. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 4, 543-551.
Loague, K., Green, R.E. (1991). Statistical and graphical methods for evaluating solute transport models: overview and application. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 7, 51-73.
Mahbod M. (1997). Estimation of soil hydraulic functions inverse method using genetic algorithms in the field and laboratory conditions. MA Thesis of Water Engineering Dept., College of Agriculture. Shiraz university.(In Farsi).
Mane, A., Saratale, G., Karadge, B., Samant, J. (2011). Studies on the effects of salinity on growth, polyphenol content and photosynthetic response in Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture 23, 59-70.
Nilforoushan B., Habibi D., Khodabandeh N. and Khosravi H. (2013). Vetiver grass as a reduced plant salinity and enhancing soil fertility.National Conference of passive defense in the agricultural sector, Qeshm Island, Iran. (In Farsi)
Padmavathiamma, P.K., Li, L.Y. (2007). Phytoremediation technology: hyper-accumulation metals in plants. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 184, 105-126.
Panchaban, S., Phuaphan, W., Ta-oum, M. (1992). The use of vetiver to reduce soil erosion and improve water quality of farm pound in salt affected sandy area of the northland. Thailand, Department of Land Resources and Environment, Faculty of Agriculture.
Purseglove, J.W. (1972). Tropical Crops. Monocotyledons. Vol. 1, 2. 1972 pp.
Shahidi A. and Ahmadi M. (2012). Video training of HYDRUS model; simulation of water movement, solute, temperature, water uptake by the roots. First Edition. Kelk Zarrin. Tehran. 146 p.(In Farsi).
Simunek, J., Sejna, M., van Genuchten, M.T. (1998). The HYDRUS-1D software package for simulating the onedimensional movement of water, heat, and multiple solutes in variably-saturated media. Version 2.0. IGWMC-TPS-70, International Ground Water Modeling Center, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado..
Sogbedji, J., Van Es, H., Hutson, J. (2001). N fate and transport under variable cropping history and fertilizer rate on loamy sand and clay loam soils: I. Calibration of the LEACHMN model. Plant and Soil 229, 57-70.
Tanwar, B. (2003). Saline water management for irrigation. International Commission on irrigation and drainage. New Delhi, India.
Truong, P.N., Barker, D., Watson, A., Sombatpanit, S., Northcutt, B., Maglinao, A. (2004). Vetiver grass technology for land stabilization, erosion and sediment control in the Asia-Pacific Region, First Asia-Pacific Conference on Ground and Water Bioengineering for Erosion Control and Slope Stabilization, Manila, Philippines, April 1999. Science Publishers, Inc., pp. 123-134.