Evaluation of Phosphate Solubilizing and Potassium Releasing Ability of Some Trichoderma Species under in-vitro Conditions

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor of Soil Science, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran

2 Ph.D. student of Soil Science, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran

3 Professor of Plant Patology, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran


The deficiency of macro-nutrients such as phosphorus and potassium is very important due to vital roles of these elements. Although the total amount of phosphorus and potassium in the soil is high, the formation of insoluble forms of phosphorus, as well as the stabilization of potassium in silicates, has led to the shortage of these essential elements. The use of microorganisms, having the ability to dissolve insoluble phosphate forms and potassium fixed in silicates, can be effective in reducing the deficiency of these elements for the plant. In this research, 7 species of Trichoderma fungis were selected and their effects on the release of phosphorus and potassium were evaluated in Pikovskaya’s, Alexandrov’s and modified Pikovskaya’s media. The results showed that in Pikovskaya’s broth medium, phosphorus release rate by different species of fungi was consistent with decreasing pH. Trichoderma koningii, T.harzianum, T.citrinoviride and T.viridescens had the most phosphate solubilizing ability and increased soluble phosphorus by 244, 205, 191 and 190%, respectively. In both Aleksandrov’s and modified pikovskaya’s media, which contain both insoluble inorganic phosphate and potassium as biotite, it was observed that the dissolution rate of tri-calcium phosphate was lower than that of pikovskaya’s medium which has available potassium. T.koningii in Aleksandrov’s medium and T.harzianum in modified Pikovskaya’s medium had the highest ability to release potassium from biotite. These species increased potassium in solution by 123 and 20% compared to control, respectively. In general, the results showed that Trichoderma fungi has the ability to solubilize phosphate from tri-calcium phosphate and release potassium from biotite under in-vitro conditions.


Main Subjects

Aleksandrov, V. G., B lagodyr, R. N. and Iiiev, I. P. (1967). Liberation of phosphoric acid from apatite by silicate bacteria. Microbiologist in Kiev, 29, 111-114
Altomare, C., Norvell, W., Bjorkman, T. and Harman, G. (1999). Solubilization of phosphate and micronutrients by the plant growth promoting and biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum Rifai (1295 22). Applied Environmental Microbiology, 65, 2926-2933
Asea, P. E. A., Kucey, R. M. N. and Stewart, J. W. B. (1988) Inorganic phosphate solubilization by two Penicillium species in solution culture and soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 20, 459-464.
Bennett, P. C., Choi, W. J. and Rogers, J. R. (1998). Microbial destruction of feldspars. Mineralogical Management, 8, 149-150
Benitez, T. Rincon, A. M., Limon, M. C. and Codon, A. C. (2004). Biocontrol mechanisms of Trichoderma strains. International Microbiology, 7, 249-260.
Chai, B., Wu, Y., Liu, P., Liu, B. and Gao, M. (2011). Isolation and phosphate-solubilizing ability of a fungus, Penicillium sp. from soil of an alum mine. Basic Microbiology, 51,5-14.
Cottenie, A. (1980). Soil and Plant Testing as a Basis of Fertilizer Recommendation. FAO soils Bulletin, 38, 94-100.
De Santiago, A., García-López, A. M., Quintero, J. M., Avilés, M. and Delgado, A. (2013). Effect of Trichoderma asperellum strain T34 and glucose addition on iron nutrition in cucumber grown on calcareous soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 57, 598-605.
Deaker, R., László Kecskés, M., Timothy Rose, M., Amprayn, K., Krishnen, G., Thi Kim Cuc, T., Thuy Nga. V., Thi Cong, P., Thanh Hien, N., and Robert Kennedy, I. (2011). Practical methods for the quality control of inoculant biofertilizers. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR).
Dennis, C. and Webster, J. (1971). Antagonistic properties of species groups of Trichoderma spp. Production of non-volatile antibiotics. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 57, 25-29.
Fadhl, H. A and Al.Hadithi, B. A. A. (2016).The Effect of Fungi Inoculation Solvent Phosphate in Increasing Phosphorus availability in Calcareous Soil and its Concentration in Cucumis sativus L. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 5(9), 750-763.
Garcia-Lopez, M. A., Aviles, M. and Delgado, A. (2015). Plant uptake of phosphorus from sparingly available P-source as affected by Trichoderma asperellum T34. Agricultural and Food Science 24, 249-260.
Harman, G. E., Howell, C. R., Viterbo, A., Chet, I. and Lorito, M. (2004). Trichoderma species-opportunistic, avirulent plant symbionts. Nature Review Microbiology, 2, 43–56.
Kalavati, P., Sharma, M. C. and Modi, H .A. (2012). Isolation of two potassium solubilizing fungi from ceramic industry soil. Life Sciences Leaflets, 5, 71-75.
Khan, M. S., Ziadi, A., Ahemad, M., Oves, M. and Wani, P. A. (2010). Plant growth promotion by phosphate solubilizing fungi- current perspective. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 56,73- 98.
Khoshru, B., Sarikhani, M. R., Aliasgharzad, N. and Zare, P. (2015). Assessment the important PGPR features of isolates used in biofertilizers Barvar2, Biosuperphosphate, Supernitroplus and Nitroxin. Applied Soil Research, 3(1), 39-52.
Kuhad, R. C, Singh, S. Lata and Singh. A. (2011) Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms. In A. Singh, N. Parmar and R.C. Kuhad (Eds.) Bioaugmentation, biostimulation and biocontrol, (vol. 28). (pp. 65–84). Springer, Heidelberg.
Nahas, E. (1996). Factors determining rock phosphate solubilization by microorganisms isolated from soil. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 12, 567-572.
Nahas, E. (2002). Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms: Effect of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus sources. In: Proceeding of First International Meeting on Microbial Phosphate Solubilization, 16-19 July, Salamanca, Spain, pp. 111-115.
Nautiyal, C. S. (1999). An efficient microbiological growth medium for screening of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms. FEMS Microbiology Letter, 170, 265-270.
Pikovskaya, R. I. (1948). Mobilization of phosphorus in soil connection with the vital activity of some microbial species. Microbiologiya, 17, 362-337.
Rajankar, P. N., Tambekar, P. R. D. and Wate, S. (2007). Study of phosphate solubilization efficiencies of fungi and bacteria isolated from saline belt of Puma river basin. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 3(6), 701-703.
Reyes, I., Bernier, L., Simard, R. R. and Antoun H. (1999). Effect of nitrogen source on the solubilization of different inorganic phosphates by Na isolate of Penicillium rugulosum and two UV-induced mutants. FEMS Microbiology. Ecology, 28, 281-290.
Rfaki, A., Nassiri, L. and Ibijbijen, J. (2014). Genetic diversity and phosphate solubilizing ability of Triticum aestivum rhizobacteria isolated from Meknes region, Morocco. African Journal of Microbiolgy Research, 8, 1931-1938.
Rudresh, D. L., Shivaprakash, M. K. and Prasad, R.D. (2005). Tricalcium phosphate solubilizing abilities of Trichoderma spp. in relation to P uptake and growth and yield parameters of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Canadian Journal of Microbiology51(3), 217-222.
Rui-Xia, L., Feng C., Guan P., Qi-Rong, S., Rong, L. and Wei. (2015). Solubilization of phosphate and micronutrients by Trichoderma harzianum and its relationship with the promotion of tomato plant growth. Plos One, 25, 1-16.
Saravanakumar, K., Shanmuga, V. and Kathiresan, K. (2013). Effect of Trichoderma on soil phosphate solubilization and growth improvement of Avicennia marina. Aquatic Botany, 104, 101–105.
Sarikhani, M. R., Ebrahimi, M., Oustan, Sh., and Aliasgharzad, N. (2013). Application of potassium solubilizing bacteria a promising approach in sustainable agriculture - increasing of potassium releasing from k-containing minerals in presence of insoluble phosphate. The 1st International Conference on Environmental Crises and its Solutions, Islamic Azad University, Khozestan, Kish, Iran. (Farsi)
Sarikhani, M. R., Khoshru, B. and Oustan, S. (2016). Efficiency of some bacterial strains in potassium release from mica and phosphate solubilization under in vitro conditions. Geomicrobiology Journal, 0(0), 1-7.
Sarikhani, M.R., Oustan, S., Ebrahimi, M. and Aliasgharzad, N. (2018). Isolation and identification of potassium-releasing bacteria in soil and assessment of their ability to release potassium for plants. European Journal of Soil Science, 69, 1078-1086.
Selvi, K. B., Paul, J. J. A., Vijaya, V. and Saraswathi, K. (2017). Analyzing the Efficacy of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms by enrichment culture techniques. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Journal, 3, 1-7.
Sharma, S., Kumar, V. and Tripathi, R.B. (2011). Isolation of Phosphate Solubilizing Microorganism (PSMs) from soil. Microbiology and Biotechnology, 1(2), 90-95.
Sharma, S. B., Sayyed, R. Z., Trivedi, M. H. and Gobi, T. A. (2013). Phosphate solubilizing microbes: sustainable approach for managing phosphorus deficiency in agricultural soils. SpringerPlus, 2(1), 587.
Sheng, X. F. (2005). Growth promotion and increased potassium uptake of cotton and rape by a potassium releasing strain of Bacillus edaphicus. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 37, 1918-1922.
Sugumaran P, Janarthanam B. (2007). Solubilization of potassium containing minerals by bacteria and their effect on plant growth. World Journal of Agricultural Science, 3(3), 350-355.
Vinale, F., Sivasithamparam, K., Ghisalberti, E. L., Woo, S. L. and Lorito, M. (2008). Trichoderma-plant-pathogen interactions. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 40, 1-10.
Yedidia, I., Srivastva, A. K., Kapulnik, Y. and Chet, I. (2001). Effect of Trichoderma harzianum on microelement concentrations and increased growth of cucumber plants. Plant and Soil, 235, 235-242.
Zorb, C., Senbayram, M. and Peiter, E. (2014). Potassium in agriculture–status and perspectives. Journal of Plant Physiology, 171, 656–669.