Investigation of Cadmium Chloride and Cobalt Chloride Concentrations on Some Soil Microbial Indices under Cultivated Savory Plant

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Graduate Master, Department of Water and Soil Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Ilam University

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Water and Soil Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Ilam University


In the twentieth century, soil quality and health declining has become a major challenge due to application of poor and polluted water sources. Accordingly, the effect of different concentrations of cobalt chloride and cadmium chloride in irrigation water (0 (control), 100, 200 and 400 mM) on some soil microbial indices during vegetative growth of the medicinal Savory plant (Satureja hortensis L.), in two separate experiments was carried out in a completely randomized design with three replications in the research greenhouse of Agricultural Faculty in Ilam. The experiments were done in 5 kg-pots with 26 cm in height and 30 cm in diameter and longed for two months in 2014. The results showed the highest values of basal respiration rate and substrateinduced respiration in the control and the lowest values of these two indices in 400 mM concentrations of cadmium chloride and cobalt chloride. In terms of soil microbial biomass carbon, the highest value (308 soil) and the lowest value (190 soil) were found in the control and 400 mM concentration of cadmium chloride salt solution, respectively. The highest (27 soil) and the lowest (14 soil) values of soil microbial biomass nitrogen were found in control and 400 mM concentration of cadmium chloride, respectively. As well as, the lowest (19 soil) amount of soil microbial biomass nitrogen was obtained in 400 mM concentration of cobalt chloride salt solution. The highest amount of microbial quotient, metabolic coefficient and microbial biomass were observed in the control treatment. The microbial biomass carbon and microbial biomass nitrogen ratio increased by irrigation water with different concentrations of cobalt chloride. Increasing the concentrations of cadmium chloride and cobalt chloride showed a negative effect on the microbial quality of the soil, which will pay more attention to the quality of irrigation water for health and quality of the soil microbial community, and hence the quality and overall health of the plant, and ultimately represent health and food safety.


Main Subjects

Agha Alikhani, M., Iranpour, A. and Naghdi Badi, H. (2013). Changes in agronomical and phytochemical yield of purple coneflower (Echinaceae purpurea (L.) Moench) under urea and three bio-fertilizers application. Medicinal Plants, 2(46), 121-136. (In Farsi)
Alef, A. and Nannipieri, P. (1995). Methods in Applied Soil Microbiology and Biochemistry. Academics Press. UK.
Aliasgharzad, N., Molaei, A. and Oustan, S. (2011). Pollution induced community tolerance (PICT) of microorganisms in soil incubated with different levels of lead. WASET 60: 1469-1473.
Azizi, A. and Mirblouk, A (2017).The effect of chromium and vermicompost on some microbial and ecophysiological indices of soil. Water and Soil Science, 27(4), 13-25. (In Farsi)
Black, C. A. (1986). Method of Soil Analysis, Part 2, chemical and microbiological properties. In: A. L. Page, R. H. Miller and D. R. Keeney (Eds.), Methods of Soil.  (pp. 131-172). American Society of Agronomy, Inc, Publisher, Madison, Wisconsin USA.
Bouuyoucos, U. I. (1962). Hydrometer Method improved for making particle size analysis of soil. Agronomy, 54, 464-465.
Bremner, J. M. (1965). Total Nitrogen. In: A. L. Page., R. H. Miller and D. R. Keeney (Eds,). Methods of Soil Analysis, part 2. (pp. 1149-1178.). American Society of Agronomy, Inc, Publisher, Madison, Wisconsin USA.  
Briggs, L. J. and Shantz, H. L. (1912). The wilting coefficient for different plants and its indirect determination. USDA Bureau of Plant Industry Bull 230. U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Washington, DC.
Brookes, P. C., Heijnen, C. E., McGrath, S. P. and Vance, E. D. (1986). Soil microbial biomass estimates in soils contaminated with metals. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 18: 383-388.
Bunemann, E. K. Schwenke, G. D. and Van Zwieten, L. (2006). Impact of agricultural inputs on soil organisms. A Paper Review, 44, 379-406.
Carmo, J. B. (2001). Impacto da aplicacao de biossólidos nas atividades microbianado solo. M.Sc. Dissertation, Universidade de São Paulo, Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, Piracicaba, Brasil.
Dayani, L. and Raiesi, F. (2012). The response of N mineralization, microbialbiomass N and urease activity in Cd contaminated soils to compost addition. Agricultural and Ecological, 2(2). 1-15. (In Farsi)
Fortes, C., Trivelin, P.C.O. and Vitti, A.C. (2012) Long-term decomposition of sugarcane harvest residues in Sao Paulo state, Brazil. Biomass and Bioenergy, 42:189-198.
Fritze, H. and Perkiomaki J.U. (2000). Effects of Cd-containing wood ash on the microflora of coniferous forest humus. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 32:43-51.
Ghollarata, M. and Raiesi, F. (2007). The adverse effect of soil salinization on the growth of Trifolium alexandrinum L. and associated microbial and biological properties in a soil from Iran. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 39, 1699-1702.
Ghorbani, N. R. Salehrastin, N. and Moeini, A. (2002). Heavy metals affect the microbial populations and their activities, 17th WCSS. Thailand, Symposium no. 54, 1-11.
Hadian, J. (2008). Genetic diversity of Iranian accessions of (Satureja hortensis L.) species. Ph. D. Doctor of Science in Horticulture. Department of agricultural and natural resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran. (In Farsi)
Herrick, J. E. (2000). Soil quality: an indicator of sustainable land management. Applied Soil Ecology, 15, 75-83.
Jenkinson, D. S. and Powlson, D. S. (1976). The effects of biocidal treatments on metabolism in soil. I. Fumigation with chloroform. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 8: 167-177.
José, L. M. Hernandez, T. Perez, A. and Garc─▒a, C. (2002). Toxicity of cadmium to soil microbial activity: effect of sewage sludge addition to soil on the ecological dose. Soil Ecology, 21, 149-158.
Karimi, A., Khodaverdi, H., Rasuli Sedghiani, M. and Ahmadi, P. (2011). Influence of lead contamination on some biological parameters of soil quality in the presence of a tartan rangeland. In: First National Congress of Science and Technology in Agriculture, 17-19, September, Zanjan, Zanjan University. pp. 314-346. (In Farsi)
Kazemalilou, S. and Rasouli-Sadaghiani, M. H. (2013). An evaluation of some soil biological indices in the presence of growth-promoting rhizobacteria and when soil contamination with Cd. Soil and Water Research, 44(1), 57-68. (In Farsi)
Khalighi, A. and Khara, J. (2006), The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices on some growth and physiological parameters in wheat (cv. Azar 2) plants under cadmium toxicity. Biology Department, 2 (21), 216-230. (In Persian)
Klute, A. (1986). Water retension laboratory methods. In: A. L. Page, R. H. Miller and D. R. Keeney (Eds.), Method of soil analysis Part 1. Physical and Mineralogical methods. (pp. 635-662). American Society of Agronomy, Inc, Publisher, Madison, Wisconsin USA.
Lopes, E. B. M. (2001). Diversidade metabólica em solo tratado com biossólidos. M.Sc. Dissertation, Universidade de São Paulo, Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, Piracicaba, Brasil.
Mandal, U. K., Warrington, D., Bhardwaj, A., Bar-Tal, A., Kautsky, L., Minz, D. and Levy, G. (2008). Evaluating impact of irrigation water quality on a calcareous clay soil using principal component analysis. Geoderma, 144, 189-197.
Martens, R. (1995) Current methods for measuring microbial biomass C in soil: potentials and limitations. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 19: 87-99.
Mclen, E. D. (1982). Soil pH and lime reguiremet, In: A. L. Page., R. H. Miller and D. R. Keeney (Eds,). Methods of Soil Analysis, part 2. (pp. 199-224). American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI.
Mermoud, A., Yacouba, H. and Boivin, P. (2013). Impacts of irrigation with industrial treated wastewater on soil properties. Geoderma, 200, 31-39.
Mirahmadi, H. and Safari, A. A. (2003). The effect of lead contamination on basal and Subestrat Induced respiration soil, In: Proceedings of Congress on Soil and stable environment in Karaj, Buali-Sina University, Hamedan, Iran. (In Farsi)
Moradinasab, V., Shirvani, M., Shamsaee, M. and Babaee, M. R. (2016). Assessing some chemical and biological quality attributes of soils irrigated with groundwater and treated industrial waste water in green space of mobarake steel complex. Journal of Water and Soil Science, 19(74), 101-111. (In Farsi)
Nelson, D. W. and Sommers, L. E. (1982). Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. In: A. L. Page., R. H.
Page, C., Sparks, D.L., Noll, M.R., Hendricks, G.J. (1987). Kinetics and mechanisms of potassium release from sandy Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain soils, Soil Sci, Soc. Am, J, 51: 1460-1465.
Olga, M. Jaromir, K. and Jitka, N. (2002), Some microbiological characteristics and enzymatic activities in soil polluted with heavy metals, 17 th WCSS, Thailand, Symposium no, 792, 1-7.
Ollinger, S. V., Aber J. D., Reich, P. B. and Freuder, R. (2002). Interactive effects of nitrogen deposition, tropospheric ozone, elevated CO2 and land use history on the carbon dynamics of northern hardwood forests. Glob Chang Biology, 8, 545-562.
Olsen, S.R., Cole, C.V., Watanabe, F.S. and Dean, L.A. (1954). Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. USDA Circ. 939. US Gov. Print. Office, Washington, DC.
Raiesi, F. (2007). The conversion of overgrazed pastures to almond orchards and alfalfa cropping systems may favor microbial indicators of soil quality in Central Iran. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 121, 309-318.
Raiesi, F. (2006). Carbon and N mineralization as affected by soil cultivation and crop residue in a calcareous wet land ecosystem in Central Iran. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 112, 3-20.
Renella,G., Mench, M., Landi, L. and Nannipieri, P. (2005). Microbial activity and hydrolase synthesis in long-term Cd-contaminated soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 37,133-139.
Sardinha, M. T., Muller, H., Schmeisky, R. and Joergensen, G. (2003). Microbial performance in soils along a salinity gradient under acidic conditions. Applied Soil Ecology, 23, 237-244.
Shi, Z., Lu, Y., Xu, Z. and Fu, S. (2008). Enzyme activities of urban soils under different land use in the Shenzhen city, China. Plant Soil Environmental, 54, 341-346.
Shirzadeh, N., AliAsgharzad, N. and Najafi, N. (2013). Changes in microbial biomass carbon, ecophysiological indices, basal respiration and substrate-induced respiration of soil after incubation with different lead levels. Water and soil Science, 23(2), 111-124. (In Farsi)
Suman, A., Singh, A. K. and Gaur, A. (2006). Microbial biomass turnover in Indian subtropical soils under different sugarcane intercropping systems. Agronomy, 98, 698-704.
Tejada, M. (2009). Application of different organic wastes in a soil polluted by cadmium: Effects on soil biological properties. Geoderma, 153, 254-268.