Determination of A Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) For Detecting Water Stress time of Maize Crop in the Urmia Region

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph. D Candidate of Irrigation and Drainage, Department of Water Engineering, Urmia University, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Water Engineering, Urmia University, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Soil Science, Urmia University, Iran

4 Associate Professor, Department of Water Engineering, Tabriz University, Iran

5 Assistant Professor, Department of Agriculture, Urmia University, Iran

6 Assistant Professor, Department of Water Engineering, Urmia University, Iran

7 Professor, Department of Water Engineering, Tabriz University, Iran


Infrared thermometer is one of the proper irrigation scheduling tools that can be used in fields or gardens with different soil texture. In order to schedule irrigation of maize (SC704) in Urmia climate conditions, using a difference in temperature of canopy cover of plant and air in 2017, a research was conducted at research farm of Urmia University college of agriculture under drip irrigation. In this research, the effects of various irrigation water treatments were investigated. The experimental design was carried out in a randomized complete block design with three levels of irrigation I1, I2 and I3 of 50, 75 and 100 percent of water requirement in three replications, respectively. Based on the results, the average values of CWSI for maize during the growth period for treatments of I1, I2 and I3 were calculated to be 0.53, 0.44 and 0.28, respectively. The results showed that the CWSI index increased with decreasing water requirement. The threshold of water stress index (0.28) of I3 treatment (no stress treatment) was the basis for irrigation scheduling. Then, some relationships were presented to determine the irrigation time of maize, using the CWSI index in Urmia climate for July, August and September as ,and  respectively.


Main Subjects

Ahmadi, H., Nasrolahi, A. H., Sharifipoor, M. and Eisavand, H. R. (2017). Soybean irrigation scheduling using the temperature difference between the air and canopy cover. Journal of Water and Irrigation Management, 7(1), 121-133. (In Farsi)
Alderfasi, A. A. and Nielsen, D. C. (2001). Use of crop water stress index for monitoring water status and scheduling irrigation in wheat. Journal of Agricultural Water Management, 47, 69-75.
Alizadeh, A. (2006). Designing Irrigation Systems. Imam Reza University Press: Mashhad. (In Farsi)
Broomand Nasab, S., Taheri Ghanad, S. and Moeiri, M. (2004). Application of canopy cover temperature for spring maize irrigation scheduling in Khuzestan conditions. Agricultural Science Journal, 27, 47-56. (In Farsi)
Candogan, B. K., Shncik, M., Buyukcangaz, H. and Demirtas, C. (2013). Yield, quality and crop water stress index relationships for deficit-irrigated soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in sub-humid climatic conditions. Journal of Agricultural Water Management, 118, 113– 121.
Carroll, D. A., Hansen, N. C., Hopkins, B. G. and DeJonge, K. C. (2017). Leaf temperature of maize and Crop Water Stress Index with variable irrigation and nitrogen supply. Journal of Irrigation Science, 35(6), 549-560.
DeJonge, K. C., Taghvaeian, S., Trout, T. J. and Comas, L. H. (2015). Comparison of canopy temperature-based water stress indices for maize. Journal of Agricultural Water Management, 156, 51-62.
Farshi, A. A., Shariati, M. R., Jarallahi, R., Gaemi, M. R., Shahabifar, M. and Tavalaii, M. M. (1997). Estimated Water Requirements for Major Agronomic and Horticultural Plants of the Country. Ministry of Agriculture (TAT): Soil and Water Research Institute. (In Farsi)
Fitzgerald, G. J., Rodriguez, D., Christensen, L. K., Belford, R., Sadras, V. O. and Clarke, T. R. (2006). Spectral and thermal sensing for nitrogen and water status in rain-fed and irrigated wheat environments. Journal of Precision Agriculture, 7(4), 233-248.
Ghorbani, M., Bromand Nasab, S. and Soltani Mohammadi, A. (2015). Effect of water salinity in sprinkler irrigation on the CWSI index for irrigation scheduling of summer maize. Journal of Irrigation Sciences and Engineering, 39(3), 63-71. (In Farsi)
Idso, S. B., Reginato, R. J., Hatfield, J. L., Walker, G. K., Jackson, R. D. and Pinter Jr, P. J. (1980). A generalization of the stress-degree-day concept of yield prediction to accommodate a diversity of crops. Journal of Agricultural Meteorology, 21(3), 205-211.
Idso, S. B., Jackson, R. D., Pinter Jr, P. J., Reginato, R. J. and Hatfield, J. L. (1981). Normalizing the stress-degree-day parameter for environmental variability. Journal of Agricultural Meteorology, 24, 45-55.
Lawlor, D. W. and Cornic, C. (2002). Photosynthetic carbon assimilation and associated metabolism in relation to water deficits in higher plants. Journal of Plant, Cell and Environment, 25(2), 275-294.
Maes, W. H. and Steppe, K. (2012). Estimating evapotranspiration and drought stress with ground-based thermal remote sensing in agriculture: a review. Journal of Experimental Botany, 63, 4671-4712.
Mangus, D. L., Sharda, A. and Zhang, N. (2016). Development and evaluation of thermal infrared imaging system for high spatial and temporal resolution crop water stress monitoring of corn within a greenhouse. Journal of Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 121, 149–159.
Mohammadi, H., Bromand Nasab, S., Nasrolahi, A. H. and Eizadpanah, Z. (2016). Effect of different drought irrigation regimes on maize water stress index (CWSI). In: Proceedings of 2nd National Congress on Iran Irrigation and Drainage, 23-25 Aug., Esfahan University of Technology, Esfahan, Iran, pp. 1-10. (In Farsi)
Movahedi, M. R. and Salehi, B. (2010). Effect of row spacing and plant density on yield and yield components of maize (SC711) in the Mianeh region. Journal of Modern Agricultural Science, 6(18), 97-104. (In Farsi)
Nouraki, A., Akhavan, S. and Rezaei, Y. (2017). Evaluation of Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) for sunflower under different Irrigation Regimes. Journal of Researcher, 9(7), 59-63.
Onnabi Milani, A., Neyshabouri, M. R., Mosaddeghi, M. R. and Zare Haggi, D. (2016). Relationships between leaf water potential, stress-degree-day and available water depletion in almond tree under salinity stress. Journal of Water and Soil Science, 26(1), 189-206. (In Farsi)
Orta, A. H., Erdem, Y. and Erdem, T. (2003). Crop water stress index for watermelon. Scientia Horticulture, 98(2), 121-130.
Raes, D. (2009). The ETo Calculator Version 3.1, Reference Manual. FAO, Rome, Italy, 38 p.
Saeedinia, M., Broomand Nasab, S., Hooshmand, A., Soltani Mohammadi, A. and Andarzian, B. (2015). Applicability of CWSI index for irrigation scheduling of maize using saline water in Ahvaz. Journal of Water and Soil Science, 26(1), 173-185. (In Farsi)
Seyfi, A., Mirlatifi, M., Dehghani Sanij, H. and Torabi, M. (2017). Determination of water stress index for pistachio trees under subsurface drip irrigation method using temperature difference between the air and canopy cover. Journal of Water and Irrigation Management, 4(1), 123-136. (In Farsi)
Sezen, S. M., Yazar, A., Daşgan, Y., Yucel, S., Akyıldız, A., Tekin, S. and Akhoundnejad, Y. (2014). Evaluation of crop water stress index (CWSI) for red pepper with drip and furrow irrigation under varying irrigation regimes. Journal of Agricultural Water Management, 143, 59-70.
Shackel, K. (2011). A plant-based approach to deficit irrigation in trees and vines. Journal of HortScience, 46(2), 173-177.
Shahrokhnia, M. A. (2015). Irrigation scheduling of fields and orchards with measuring the temperature of canopy cover. Technical Journal, Ministry of Agricultural Jahad, Fars Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, 7, 1-23. (In Farsi)
Shahrokhnia, M. A., Zare, E. Dehghani Sanij, H. (2015). Comparison of different drip irrigation scheduling tools for citrus trees in fine and medium texture soils. Iranian Journal of Irrigation and Drainage, 3(9), 448-458. (In Farsi)
Taghvaeian, S., Chávez, J. L., Bausch, W. C., DeJonge, K. C. and Trout, T. J. (2014). Minimizing instrumentation requirement for estimating crop water stress index and transpiration of maize. Journal of Irrigation Science, 32(1), 53-65
Taheri Ghanad, S. (2008). Irrigation scheduling of fields using a direct method. In: Proceedings of 2nd Seminar on Improvement solutions correction of surface irrigation systems, 22 May., Iranian Irrigation and Drainage Committee, Tehran, Iran, pp. 43-59. (In Farsi)
Verdinejad, V. R., Besharat, S., Abghari, H. and Ahmadi, H. (2012). Estimation of maximum allowable deficit in different growth stages of fodder mays using canopy-air temperature difference. Journal of Water and Soil, 25(6), 1344-1352. (In Farsi)