Reduction of Crude Oil Pollution in Soil by Phytoremediation, Bioaugmentation and Bioaugmented Phytoremediation

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph. D student, Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Znajan, Iran

2 Professor of Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Zanjan University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran

3 Associate Professor of Persian Gulf and Oman Sea Ecological Research Institute, Iranian fisheries science Research Institute, Agricultural Education and Extension Research Organization, Bandar Abbas, Hormozgan, Iran

4 Associate Professor of Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Znajan, Iran,

5 Assistant Professor of Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Znajan, Iran


To investigation the efficiency of phytoremediation, bioremediation and bioaugmented phytoremediation to remove crude from the soil, a factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications. The treatments consisted of 3 levels of oil concentrations in the soil (0, 4 and 8% by weight), four treatments of plant (no plant, bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), sorghum (bicolor Sorghum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare)) and 3 treatments of fungi (no fungi, native fungi and Non-native fungi (Phanerochate chrysosporium)).  In this study, the isolated fungi from polluted soil was Aspergillus niger. Samples of five kilograms of soil were polluted with different amounts of crude oil and poured into plastic pots. After six weeks, some pots were inoculated with fungi, then all pots were planted with the proposed gramineae species. The results showed that the application of plants significantly increased the removal percentage of crude oil compared to the control. The removal percentage of crude oil was corresponded to cultivated soils of sorghum, bermudagrass, and barley, in desending order. Inoculated soils with fungi increased the removal percentage of crude oil significantly as compared to the control. The native fungus had more efficiency than the non-native fungus in terms of degradation of crude oil. Also, their combined application of bioaugmentation and phytoremediation (bioaugmented phytoremediation) was significantly more than the application of each method alone (phytoremediation and bioremediation); which indicate the better efficiency of the bioaugmented phytoremediation method than the phytoremediation and bioremediation method individually.


Main Subjects

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