کاهش آلودگی نفتی در خاک به روش‌های گیاه‌پالایی، زیست پالایی و گیاه‌پالایی زیست‌افزونی شده

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 1. دانشجوی دکتری علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

2 استاد گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

3 دانشیار پژوهشکده اکولوژی خلیج فارس و دریای عمان، موسسه تحقیقات علوم شیلاتی کشور ،سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، بندرعباس، ایران

4 دانشیار گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

5 استادیار گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

چکیده

به­ منظور بررسی کارایی گیاه­پالایی، زیست­پالایی و گیاه­پالایی زیست­افزونی­شده در حذف نفت خام از خاک، یک آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار به اجرا درآمد. فاکتورها شامل سه سطح آلودگی خاک به نفت (صفر، 4 و 8 درصد وزنی)، چهار تیمار گیاهی (بدون گیاه، برموداگراس (Cynodon dactylon)، سورگوم (bicolorSorghum) و جو (Hordeum vulgare)) و سه تیمار قارچ (بدون قارچ، قارچ بومی و قارچ غیربومی Phanerochate chrysosporium))) بودند. در این تحقیق قارچ جداسازی شده از خاک آلوده از گونه آسپرژیلوس نایجر ( Aspergillus niger) بود. برای انجام آزمایش نمونه­های پنج کیلویی خاک با مقادیر مختلف نفت خام آلوده شدند و در گلدان‌های پلاستیکی ریخته شدند و پس از گذشت شش هفته با قارچ‌ها تلقیح شده و سپس در خاک‌های آلوده تلقیح شده با قارچ و تلقیح نشده سه گونه­ گیاهی گرامینه کاشته شدند. نتایج نشان داد که کاربرد گیاهان سبب افزایش معنی‌دار درصد حذف نفت خام نسبت به شاهد گردید. درصد حذف نفت خام در خاک‌های کشت شده به­ ترتیب نزولی مربوط به سورگوم، برموداگراس و جو بود. تلقیح خاک با قارچ­ها درصد حذف ترکیبات نفتی را به‌طور معنی‌داری نسبت به شاهد افزایش دادند. قارچ بومی در تجزیه و مصرف مواد نفتی نسبت به قارچ غیربومی مورد مطالعه کارآیی و عملکرد بهتری داشت. همچنین کاربرد توأم آن­ها (گیاه‌پالایی زیست­افزونی­شده) نسبت به کاربرد هر یک از روش­ها به‌تنهایی (گیاه‌پالایی و زیست پالایی) درصد حذف نفت خام را بطور معنی‌داری افزایش داد؛ که نشان می‌دهد کارایی روش گیاه‌پالایی زیست­افزونی­شده نسبت به گیاه‌پالایی و زیست­پالایی به‌تنهایی به‌طور معنی‌داری بالاتر بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Reduction of Crude Oil Pollution in Soil by Phytoremediation, Bioaugmentation and Bioaugmented Phytoremediation

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hadi Koohkan 1
  • Ahmad Golchin 2
  • Mohammad Sedigh Mortazavi 3
  • Roghyeh Hemati 4
  • Fatemeh Shahryari 5
1 Ph. D student, Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Znajan, Iran
2 Professor of Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Zanjan University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
3 Associate Professor of Persian Gulf and Oman Sea Ecological Research Institute, Iranian fisheries science Research Institute, Agricultural Education and Extension Research Organization, Bandar Abbas, Hormozgan, Iran
4 Associate Professor of Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Znajan, Iran,
5 Assistant Professor of Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Znajan, Iran
چکیده [English]

To investigation the efficiency of phytoremediation, bioremediation and bioaugmented phytoremediation to remove crude from the soil, a factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications. The treatments consisted of 3 levels of oil concentrations in the soil (0, 4 and 8% by weight), four treatments of plant (no plant, bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), sorghum (bicolor Sorghum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare)) and 3 treatments of fungi (no fungi, native fungi and Non-native fungi (Phanerochate chrysosporium)).  In this study, the isolated fungi from polluted soil was Aspergillus niger. Samples of five kilograms of soil were polluted with different amounts of crude oil and poured into plastic pots. After six weeks, some pots were inoculated with fungi, then all pots were planted with the proposed gramineae species. The results showed that the application of plants significantly increased the removal percentage of crude oil compared to the control. The removal percentage of crude oil was corresponded to cultivated soils of sorghum, bermudagrass, and barley, in desending order. Inoculated soils with fungi increased the removal percentage of crude oil significantly as compared to the control. The native fungus had more efficiency than the non-native fungus in terms of degradation of crude oil. Also, their combined application of bioaugmentation and phytoremediation (bioaugmented phytoremediation) was significantly more than the application of each method alone (phytoremediation and bioremediation); which indicate the better efficiency of the bioaugmented phytoremediation method than the phytoremediation and bioremediation method individually.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Petroleum pollution
  • Bioaugmentation
  • Phytoremediation
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