Numerical Simulation of Incipient Motion Parameters of the Sediment Particles with Eulerian-Lagrangian Approach

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. student, Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran


Solid particles transport in fluid flow is a common phenomenon in nature, and its typical example in hydraulic science is sediment transport in rivers. In a channel with a bed of sedimentary materials, there are no moving particles in the streams with a low discharge and remain steady in their place. As the particle velocity increases, the bed particles begin to move, which is called the threshold of motion of the sediment particles. In this study, using a numerical model based on OpenFOAM software, a two-dimensional simulation of the threshold of group motion of sediment particles in turbulent flow has been investigated. The approach used in the simulation is Eulerian-Lagrangian, in which the continuous phase is emulated in a continuous manner in the form of an Eulerian with finite volume method and sediment particles are simulated in a Lagrangian and particle tracing method. In the current model, the effect of fluid on the particle, the particle on the fluid, and the forces that the particles of the sediment enter to each other are considered. In order to consider the effect of sediment particles inner interacting, a soft contact approach and a friction damper spring impact model were used. The results of the numerical model have been compared with other researchers in the form of critical velocity method and a relation has been proposed for the particle motion threshold criterion. Also, Incipient motion of sediment particles with different criteria has been studied. The results show that the present model can simulate the phenomenon well with proper accuracy.


Main Subjects

Ab Ghani, A., Salem, A. M., Abdullah, R., Yahaya, A. S., & Zakaria, N. A. (1999). Incipient motion of sediment particles over loose deposited beds in a rigid rectangular channel. In Proc. the Eighth International Conference on Urban Storm Drainage.
Ackers, P., & White, W. R. (1973). Sediment transport: new approach and analysis. Journal of the Hydraulics Division99(hy11).
Bogardi, J. L. (1968). Incipient sediment motion in terms of critical mean velocity. Acta Technica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae62(1-2), 1.
Bong, C. H. J., Lau, T. L., & Chan, N. W. (2016). Sediment deposit thickness and its effect on critical velocity for incipient motion. Water Science and Technology74(8), 1876-1884.
Hydraulics, D. (1972). Systematic investigation of two-dimensional and three-dimensional scour. Report M648 M863.
Dey, S., Sarker, H. K. D., & Debnath, K. (1999). Sediment threshold under stream flow on horizontal and sloping beds. Journal of engineering mechanics125(5), 545-553.
Ergun, S. (1952). Fluid flow through packed columns. Chem. Eng. Prog.48, 89-94.
El-Zaemey, A. K. S. (1991). Sediment transport over deposited beds in sewers. Ph.D. thesis, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Univ. of Newcastle upon Tyne.
Garde, R. J., & Raju, K. R. (2000). Mechanics of sediment transportation and alluvial stream problems. Taylor & Francis.
Gidaspow, D., Bezburuah, R., & Ding, J. (1991). Hydrodynamics of circulating fluidized beds: kinetic theory approach (No. CONF-920502-1). Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering.
Graf, W. H., & Pazis, G. C. (1977). Les phénomènes de déposition et d'érosion dans un canal alluvionnaire; érosion et déposition; un concept probabiliste; Weak sediment transport.
Grass, A. J. (1971). Structural features of turbulent flow over smooth and rough boundaries. Journal of fluid Mechanics, 50(2), 233-255.
Gregoretti, C. (2000). The initiation of debris flow at high slopes: experimental results. Journal of Hydraulic Research38(2), 83-88.
Gruber, K. (2012). Sediment transport in open channel flows-Experimental investigation and numerical simulation of local scour development downstream of a weir. Ph. D. dissertation, Johannes Kepler University Linz.
Iwagaki, Y. (1956). (I) Hydrodynamical study on critical tractive force. Transactions of the Japan Society of Civil Engineers1956(41), 1-21.
Kramer, H. (1935). Sand mixtures and sand movement in fluvial model. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers100(1), 798-838.
Launder, B. E., & Spalding, D. B. (1974). The numerical computation of turbulent flows. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 3(2), 269-289.
Mei, R., & Klausner, J. F. (1994). Shear lift force on spherical bubbles. International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow15(1), 62-65.
Nalluri, C., & Ghani, A. A. (1996). Design options for self-cleansing storm sewers. Water Science and Technology33(9), 215-220.
Nasrollahi, A., Salehi Neyshabouri, S. A. A., Ahmadi, G., & Namin, M. M. (2008). Numerical simulation of particle saltation process. Particulate Science and Technology26(6), 529-550.
Neill, C. R. (1968). Note on initial movement of coarse uniform bed-material. Journal of Hydraulic Research6(2), 173-176.
در جدول 1 آمده است
Novak, P., & Nalluri, C. (1975). Sediment transport in smooth fixed bed channels. Journal of the Hydraulics Division101(ASCE# 11556 Proceeding).
Novak, P., & Nalluri, C. (1984). Incipient motion of sediment particles over fixed beds. Journal of Hydraulic Research22(3), 181-197.
Odar, F., & Hamilton, W. S. (1964). Forces on a sphere accelerating in a viscous fluid. Journal of Fluid Mechanics18(2), 302-314.
Rottner, J. (1959). A formula for bed load transportation. La Houille Blanche14(3), 285-307.
Safari, M. J. S., Aksoy, H., Unal, N. E., & Mohammadi, M. (2017). Experimental analysis of sediment incipient motion in rigid boundary open channels. Environmental Fluid Mechanics17(6), 1281-1298.
Salem, A. M. (2013). The effects of the sediment bed thickness on the incipient motion of particles in a rigid rectangular channel. In Proc. 17th Int. Water Technology Conf., IWTC17, Istanbul, Turkey.
Shafai Bejestan, M. (2009). Basic theory and practice of Hydraulic of sediment transport. Shahid Chamran University.
Shields, A. (1936). Application of similarity principles and turbulence research to bed-load movement.
Straub, L. G. (1935). Some observations of sorting of river‐sediments. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union16(2), 463-467.
Vetsch, D. F. (2012). Numerical simulation of sediment transport with meshfree methods. Ph. D. dissertation, ETH Zurich.
Wen, C. Y. (1966). Mechanics of fluidization. In Chem. Eng. Prog., Symp. Ser. (Vol. 62, pp. 100-111).
Wiberg, P. L., & Smith, J. D. (1987). Calculations of the critical shear stress for motion of uniform and heterogeneous sediments. Water resources research23(8), 1471-1480.
Yalin, M. S., & Karahan, E. (1979). Inception of sediment transport. Journal of the hydraulics division105(11), 1433-1443.
Zhou, Z. Y., Yu, A. B., & Choi, S. K. (2011). Numerical simulation of the liquid-induced erosion in a weakly bonded sand assembly. Powder technology211(2-3), 237-249.
Zou, S. (2007). Coastal sediment transport simulation by smoothed particle hydrodynamics. Ph. D. dissertation, The Johns Hopkins University.