Evaluation of the qualitative characteristics of the treated calcareous soils with compost and biochar in the presence of plant growth promoting bacteria

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

2 Professors, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

3 Assistance Prof. of Soil Science, Dept. of Soil Science, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of compost and biochar from trees pruning residues in the presence of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on some biological properties of calcareous soil. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design under greenhouse condition in rhizobox. The factors included organic matter (biochar, compost and control), microbial inoculation (PGPR bacteria and no microbial inoculation as a control) and soil (rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soil). The organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass phosphorus, microbial respiration, substrate-induced respiration and phosphatase enzymes in the rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soils were determined at the end of growth period. The results showed that the simultaneous application of organic matter and microbial inoculation increased soil biological indices significantly as compared to control treatment. Furthermore, the compost treatment increased the microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass phosphorus, alkaline and acid phosphatase enzyme activity in the rhizospheric soil by 1.02, 1.14, 1.16 and 1.10 times, as compared to the ones in non-rhizospheric soil, respectively. However, the lowest fraction of microbial biomass carbon to microbial biomass phosphorus was observed in rhizospheric soil of compost treatment. Microbial respiration and substrate-induced respiration in the compust rhizospheric soil were measured to be 1.04 and 1.21 times higher than the ones in the non-rhizospheric soil, respectively. In general, application of organic matter in the conditions of microbial inoculation compared with non-microbial inoculation lead to improve soil biological properties.


Main Subjects

Aghababaei, F. Raiesi, F. and Hosseinpur, A. (2014) .The Influence of Earthworm and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Microbial Biomass Carbon and Enzyme Activity in a Soil Contaminated with Cadmium in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Cultivation. Journal of Water and Soil, 27, 949-962. (In Farsi)
Alef, K. and Nannipieri, P. (1995). Methods in Applied Soil Microbiology and Biochemistry. Academic Press, London.
Anderson, J.P.E. (1982). Soil Respiration. PP. 831-872. In: A. L. Page et al. (eds). Methods of Soil Analysis. 2nd ed. Part 2. American Society of Agronomy, U.S.A.
ASTM standard. (2009). Standard test method for chemical analysis of wood charcoal. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International: Conshohocken, PA.
Babalola, O.A. Adesodun, J.K. Olasantan, F.O. and Adekunle. A.F. (2012). Responses of Some Soil Biological, Chemical and Physical Properties to Short-term Compost Amendment. Journal of Plant Nutrient Soil Science, 7, 28-38.
Bailey, V.L. Fansler, S.J. Smith, J.L. and Bolton, H.Jr. (2011). Reconciling apparent variability in effects of biochar amendment on soil enzyme activities by assay optimization. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 43, 296–301.
Balík, J. Pavlíková, D. and Vanĕk, V. (2007). The influence of long-term sewage sludge application on the activity of phosphatases in the rhizosphere of plants. Plant and Soil Environmental, 53, 375–381.
Brewer, C.E. Schmidt-Rohr, K. Satrio, J.A. and Brown, R.C. (2009). Characterization of biochar from fast pyrolysis and gasification systems. Environmental Progress and Sustainable Energy, 28, 386–396.
Birk, J.J, Steiner, C, Teixeira, W.C, Zech, W. and Glaser, B. (2009). Microbial response to charcoal amendments and fertilization of a highly weathered tropical soil. In: Woods, W.I, Teixeira, W.G, Lehmann, J, Steiner, C, WinklerPrins, A.M.G.A, Rebellato, L. (Eds.), Amazonian Dark Earths: Wim Sombroek’s Vision, Springer, Berlin, pp. 309-324
Brookes, P.C. Powlson, D.S. and Jenkinson, D.S. (1982). Measurement of microbial biomass phosphorus in soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 14,319-329.
Cakmak, O. Oztur, L. Karanlik, S. Ozkan, H. Kaya, Z. and Cakmak, I. (2001). Tolerance of 65 Durum wheat genotypes to zinc deficiency in calcareous soil. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 24, 1381-1847.
Cakmakci, R. Donmez , M.F. and Erdogan, U. (2007) .The effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on barley seedling growth, nutrient uptake, some soil properties, and bacterial counts. Turkish Journal of Agriculter and Forest, 31, 189-199.
Chauhan, B.S. Stewart, J.W.B. and Paul, E.A. (1981). Effect of labile inorganic phosphate status and organic carbon additions on the microbial uptake of phosphorus in soil. Canadian. Journal of Soil Science, 61, 373–385.
Chen, C.R. Condron, L.M. Davis, M.R. and Sherlick, R.R. (2003). Seasonal changes in soil phosphorus and associated microbial properties under adjacent grassland and forest in New Zealand. Forest Ecology and Management, 177, 35-43.
Das, A. Patel, D.P. Munda, G.C. and Ghosh, P.K. (2010). Effect of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients on yield, nutrient uptake and soil fertility of maize (Zea mays)-mustard (Brassica campestris) cropping system. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 80 (1), 85-8.
Dehghan Manshadi, H. Bahmanyar, M.A. Salek Gilani, S. and Lakzian A. (2012). Effect of Application of Compost and Vermicompost Enriched with Chemical Fertilizer and Manure on Some Bilogical (Ocimum basilicum) Rhizospher. Journal of Water and Soil, 16(60), 157-197. (In Farsi).
Duineveld, B.M. Kowalchuk, G.A. Keijzer, A. van Elsas, J.D. and van Veen, J.A. (2001). Analysis of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of chrysanthemum via denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA as well as DNA fragments coding for 16S rRNA. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 67,172–178.
Emami, A. (1997). Plant analysis methods. Agricultural research. Soil and Water Research Institute. (Volume I). (In Farsi).
Eivazi, F. and Tabatabai, M.A. (1977). Phosphatase in soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 9, 167-172.
Fierer, N. Schimel, J.P. and Holden, P.A. (2003). Variations in microbial community composition through two soil depth profiles. Soil Biology and Biochemestry, 35, 167–176.
Gil-Sotres, F. Trasar-Cepeda, C. Leiros, M.C. and Seoane, S. (2005). Different approaches to evaluating soil quality using biochemical properties. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 37, 877–887.
Hammer, E.C. Balogh-Brunstad, Z. Jakobsen, I. Olsson, P.A. Stipp, S.L.S. and Rillig, M.C. (2014). A mycorrhizal fungus grows on biochar and captures phosphorus from its surfaces. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 77, 252–260.
Huang, Q.Y. Chen, W.L. and Guo, X.J. (2002). Sequential fractionation of Cu, Zn and Cd in soils in the absence and presence of rhizobia. In: proceedings of WCSS, August, 14-21, Thailand, p.1453.
Hylander, L.D. (2002). Improvements of rhizoboxes used for studies of soil-root interactions. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 33, 155-161.
Jenkinson, D.S. and Ladd, J.N. (1981). Microbial biomass in soil: measurement and turnover. In: Powl EA, Ladd JN (eds) Soil biochemistry.Dekker, New York, pp. 415–417.
Jin, Y., Liang, X., He, M., Liu, Y., Tian, G., Shi, J., 2016. Manure biochar influence upon soil properties, phosphorus distribution and phosphatase activities: a microcosm incubation study. Chemosphere, 142, 128–135.
Jordan, N.R. Zhang, J. and Huerd, S. (2000). Arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi: potential roles in weed management. Weed Research, 40, 397-410.
Kaur, G. and Reddy, M.S.H. (2014). Influence of P-solubilizing bacteria on crop yield and soil fertility at multilocational sites. European Journal of Soil Biology, 158, 163-168.
Kourtev, P.S. Ehrenfeld, J.G. and Huang, W.Z. (2002). Enzyme activities during litter decomposition of two exotic and two native plant species in hardwood forests of New Jersey. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 34, 1207-1218.
Lehmann, J. Rillig, M.C. Thies, J. Masiello, C.A. Hockaday, W.C. and Crowley, D. 2011. Biochar effects on soil biota e a review. Soil Biolology and Biochemistry, 43, 1812-1836.
Li, H. Shao, H. Li, W. Bi, R. and Bai, Z. (2012). Improving soil enzyme activities and related quality properties of reclaimed soil by applying weathered coal in opencast-mining areas of the Chinese Loess Plateau. Clean Soil Air Water, 40, 233–238.
Liang, Y. Nikolic, M. Peng, Y. Chen, W. and Jiang, Y. (2005). Organic manure stimulates biological activity and barley growth in soil subject to secondary salinization. Soil Biology and Biochemestry, 37, 1185–1195.
Liu, D. Fang, Sh. Tian, Y. and. Dun, X. (2012). Variation in rhizosphere soil microbial index of tree species on seasonal floodingland: An in situ rhizobox approach.Appl. Applied Soil Ecology, 59, 1– 11.
Liu, X. Zheng, J. Zhang, D. Cheng, K. Zhou, H. Zhang, A. Li, L. Joseph, S. Smith, P. Crowley, D. Kuzyakov, Y. and Pan, G. (2016). Biochar has no effect on soil respiration across Chinese agricultural soils. Science of the Total Environment, 554, 259–265.
Luo, Y. and Zhou, X. (2006). Soil respiration and the Environment. Academic press, 328 pp.
Marinari, S. Masciandaro, G. Ceccanti, B. and Grego, S. (2000). Influence of organic and mineral fertilisers on soil biological and physical properties. Bioresource Technology, 72, 9-17.
Moshiri, F. (2010). Chemical behavior of zinc in rhizosphere of two Zn-efficient and Zn-in efficient wheat cultivar. Ph.D. Thesis. Soil Science Department. University of Tehran, Iran.
Nelson, D.W. and Sommers, L.E. (1982). Total carbon, organic carbonand organic matter. p. 539–579.
Raiesi, T. Hosseinpur, A. and Raiesi, F. (2015). The Influence of Bean Rhizosphere on Some Chemical and Biological Propertie in Soils Amended with Municipal Sewage Sludge. Journal of Water and Soil, 29 (4): 1033-1045 (In Farsi)
Rajkovich, S. Enders, A. Hanley, K. Hyland, C. Zimmerman, A.R. and Lehmann, J. (2011). Corn growth and nitrogen nutrition after additions of biochars with varying properties to a temperate soil. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 48(3): 271-284.
Redel, Y. Escudey, M. Alvear, M. Conrad, J. and Borie, F. (2011). Effects of tillage and crop rotation on chemical phosphorus forms and some related biological activities in a Chilean Ultisol. Soil Use and Management, 27, 221–228.
Roberts, G.K. Gloy, B.A. Joseph, S. Scott, N.R. and Lehmann, J. (2010). Life cycle assessment of biochar system: estimating the enegetic, economic, and climate change potential. Environmental Science and Technology, 44,827-833.
Singh, H.P. Batish, D.R. and Kohli, R.K. (2003). Allelopathic interactions and allelochemicals: new possibilities or sustainable weed management. Critical Review of Plant Science, 22, 239-311.
Smith, J.L. Collins, H.P. and Bailey, V.L. (2010). Th e effect of young biochar on soil respiration. Soil Biology and Biochemestry, 42, 2345–2347.
Sparks, D.L. Page, A.L. Helmke, P.A. Loeppert, R.H. Soltanpour, P.N. Tabatabai, M.A. Johnston, C.T. and Sumner, M.E. (1996). Methods of soil analysis Part 3- Chemical methods. Soil Science Society of America Book Ser. 5, Madison, Wiscons in, USA, p. 1390.
Steiner, C. Teixeira, W.G. Lehmann, J. and Zech, W. (2004). Microbial Response to Charcoal Amendments of Highly Weathered Soils and Amazonian Dark Earths in Central Amazonia Preliminary Results. pp 195- 212.
Swift, M. J.Heal, O.W. and Anderson, J.M. (1979). Decomposition in Terrestrial Ecosystems. (Vol. 5). University of California Press, Berkeley.
Tabatabai, M.A. and Bremner, J.M. (1969). Use of p-nitrophenyl phosphate for assay of soil phosphatase activity. Soil Biology and Biochemestry, 1, 301-307.
Tejada, M. and Gonzalez, J.L. (2006). Crushed cotton gin compost on soil biological properties and rice yield. European Journal of Agronomy, 25, 22–29.
Urbankova, O. Elbl, J. and Zahora, J. (2014). The effects of biochar on soil respiration in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil, Mendel Net. P, 326-329.
Waldrop, M.P. Zak, D.R. Sinsabaugh, R.L. Gallo, M. and Lauber, C. (2004). Nitrogen deposition modifies soil carbon storage through changes in microbial enzymatic activity. Ecological Applications, 14(4), 1172-1177.
Wu, F. Jia, Z. Wang, S. Chang, S.X. and Startsev, A. (2013).Contrasting effects of wheat straw and its biochar on greenhouse gas emissions and enzyme activities in a Chernozemic soil. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 49, 555–565.
Zaman, M. Matsushima, M. Chang, S. Inubushi, K. Nguyen, L. Goto, S. Kanek, O.F. and Yoneyama, T. (2004). Nitrogen mineralization, N2O production and soil microbiological prosperities as affected by long-term application of sewage sludge composts. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 40, 101 – 109.