Study of the Optimal Conditions for 〖Zn〗^(+2) Removal Using the Biomass of Isolated Bacteria from Ravang Mine

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor of Department of Geology, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran

3 Assistant professor of Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Energy, Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah, Iran

4 Graduate Student (MSc) of Animal Biosystematics, Faculty of Biological Sciences and Technology, Shahid Behshti University, Tehran


Environmental pollution consist of heavy metals is the most important environmental problems and leads to serious damage for human health. In order to reduce the harmful effects of heavy metals, their treatment methods should be developed, of which the use of biological absorbers are particularly important. The objective of this study was to isolate the -resistant bacteria from Ravanj lead- and zinc-Mine in Markazi Province and to find the most efficient strains for zinc adsorption. For this purpose, samples were collected from the mine sediments and the  resistant bacteria were enriched in the medium and isolated. After determining the resistance of isolated bacteria to , the most effective strain (MS3, Delftia lacustris) were detected by 16S rDNA sequencing. Then after the dried strains biomass was prepared and the effect of main operational variables such as, Zinc to Bacteria Biomass concentration ratio (), and the retention time of bacteria biomass in the Zinc medium on Zinc removal has been evaluated and analyzed using the response surface method and Box-Behnken model. A numerical optimization model was performed to obtain the maximum amount of Zinc removal from aqueous solution. Among the isolated strains, the MS3 (Delftia lacustris) was the most tolerance strain to the Zinc (1200 mg/l). The maximum percentage of Zinc removal based on the quadratic model was obtained at (means), (means Zinc to Bacteria Biomass concentration ratio of), and  (means). The maximum amount of Zinc removal percentages based on the experimental design and the simulated model were 9.86% and 9.49% respectively, indicating the high accuracy of the model. Therefore, the MS3 strains can be used as a bio-absorbent for Zinc removal. 


Main Subjects

Aksu, Z., & Çağatay, Ş. Ş. (2006). Investigation of biosorption of Gemazol Turquise Blue-G reactive dye by dried Rhizopus arrhizus in batch and continuous systems. Separation and Purification Technology, 48(1), 24-35.
Al-Garni, S. M. (2005). Biosorption of lead by Gram-ve capsulated and non-capsulated bacteria. Water Sa, 31(3), 345-350.
Amini, M., Younesi, H., & Bahramifar, N. (2009). Statistical modeling and optimization of the cadmium biosorption process in an aqueous solution using Aspergillus niger. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 337(1-3), 67-73.
Bautista-Hernández, D. A., Ramírez-Burgos, L. I., Duran-Páramo, E., & Fernández-Linares, L. (2012). Zinc and lead biosorption by Delftia tsuruhatensis: a bacterial strain resistant to metals isolated from mine tailings. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 4(04), 207.
Bruins, M. R., Kapil, S., & Oehme, F. W. (2000). Microbial resistance to metals in the environment. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 45(3), 198-207.
Chatterjee, S. K., Bhattacharjee, I., & Chandra, G. (2010). Biosorption of heavy metals from industrial waste water by Geobacillus thermodenitrificans. Journal of hazardous materials, 175(1-3), 117-125.
Choińska-Pulit, A., Sobolczyk-Bednarek, J., & Łaba, W. (2018). Optimization of copper, lead and cadmium biosorption onto newly isolated bacterium using a Box-Behnken design. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 149, 275-283.
Das, N., Vimala, R., & Karthika, P. (2008). Biosorption of heavy metals–an overview. Indian journal of biotechnology. 7- 159-169.
García, R., Campos, J., Cruz, J. A., Calderón, M. E., Raynal, M. E., & Buitrón, G. (2016). Biosorption of Cd, Cr, Mn, and Pb from aqueous solutions by Bacillus sp strains isolated from industrial waste activate sludge. TIP, 19(1), 5-14.
Guo, H., Luo, S., Chen, L., Xiao, X., Xi, Q., Wei, W. & He, Y. (2010). Bioremediation of heavy metals by growing hyperaccumulaor endophytic bacterium Bacillus sp. L14. Bioresource technology, 101(22), 8599-8605.
Jiang, J., Pan, C., Xiao, A., Yang, X. and Zhang, G. (2017). Isolation, identification, and environmental adaptability of heavy-metal-resistant bacteria from ramie rhizosphere soil around mine refinery. 3 Biotech, 7(1), 1-5.
Jorgensen, N. O., Brandt, K. K., Nybroe, O., & Hansen, M. (2009). Delftia lacustris sp. nov., a peptidoglycan-degrading bacterium from fresh water, and emended description of Delftia tsuruhatensis as a peptidoglycan-degrading bacterium. International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology, 59(9), 2195-2199.
Khan, S., Cao, Q., Zheng, Y. M., Huang, Y. Z., & Zhu, Y. G. (2008). Health risks of heavy metals in contaminated soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater in Beijing, China. Environmental pollution, 152(3), 686-692.
Kiran, I., Akar, T., & Tunali, S. (2005). Biosorption of Pb (II) and Cu (II) from aqueous solutions by pretreated biomass of Neurospora crassa. Process Biochemistry, 40(11), 3550-3558.
Ledin, M. (2000). Accumulation of metals by microorganisms—processes and importance for soil systems. Earth-Science Reviews, 51(1-4), 1-31.
Li, Z., Ma, Z., van der Kuijp, T. J., Yuan, Z., & Huang, L. (2014). A review of soil heavy metal pollution from mines in China: pollution and health risk assessment. Science of the total environment, 468, 843-853.
Lima, A. I. G., Corticeiro, S. C., & Figueira, E. M. D. A. P. (2006). Glutathione-mediated cadmium sequestration in Rhizobium leguminosarum. Enzyme and microbial technology, 39(4), 763-769.
Limcharoensuk, T., Sooksawat, N., Sumarnrote, A., Awutpet, T., Kruatrachue, M., Pokethitiyook, P., & Auesukaree, C. (2015). Bioaccumulation and biosorption of Cd2+ and Zn2+ by bacteria isolated from a zinc mine in Thailand. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 122, 322-330.
Liu, H., Probst, A., & Liao, B. (2005). Metal contamination of soils and crops affected by the Chenzhou lead/zinc mine spill (Hunan, China). Science of the Total Environment, 339(1-3), 153-166.
Ma, Y., Rajkumar, M., Zhang, C., & Freitas, H. (2016). Beneficial role of bacterial endophytes in heavy metal phytoremediation. Journal of environmental management, 174, 14-25.
Malkoc, E., & Nuhoglu, Y. (2005). Investigations of nickel (II) removal from aqueous solutions using tea factory waste. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 127(1-3), 120-128.
Martínez-Martínez, S., Acosta, J. A., Cano, A. F., Carmona, D. M., Zornoza, R., & Cerda, C. (2013). Assessment of the lead and zinc contents in natural soils and tailing ponds from the Cartagena-La Unión mining district, SE Spain. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 124, 166-175.
Mashitah, M. D., Azila, Y. Y., & Bhatia, S. (2008). Biosorption of cadmium (II) ions by immobilized cells of Pycnoporus sanguineus from aqueous solution. Bioresource Technology, 99(11), 4742-4748.
Masoudzadeh, N., Zakeri, F., bagheri Lotfabad, T., Sharafi, H., Masoomi, F., Zahiri, H. S. & Noghabi, K. A. (2011). Biosorption of cadmium by Brevundimonas sp. ZF12 strain, a novel biosorbent isolated from hot-spring waters in high background radiation areas. Journal of hazardous materials, 197, 190-198.
Masoumi, F., Khadivinia, E., Alidoust, L., Mansourinejad, Z., Shahryari, S., Safaei, M. & Noghabi, K. A. (2016). Nickel and lead biosorption by Curtobacterium sp. FM01, an indigenous bacterium isolated from farmland soils of northeast Iran. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 4(1), 950-957.
Mona, S., Kaushik, A., & Kaushik, C. P. (2011). Biosorption of chromium (VI) by spent cyanobacterial biomass from a hydrogen fermentor using Box-Behnken model. International biodeterioration & biodegradation, 65(4), 656-663.
Montgomery, D. C. (2017). Design and analysis of experiments. John wiley & sons.
Nithya, C., Gnanalakshmi, B. and Pandian, S.K. (2011). Assessment and characterization of heavy metal resistance in Palk Bay sediment bacteria. Marine environmental research, 71(4), 283-294.
Olukoya, D.K., Smith, S.I. and Ilori, M.O. (1997). Isolation and characterization of heavy metals resistant bacteria from Lagos Lagoon. Folia microbiologica, 42(5), 441-444.
Özdemir, S., Kilinc, E., Poli, A., Nicolaus, B., & Güven, K. (2009). Biosorption of Cd, Cu, Ni, Mn and Zn from aqueous solutions by thermophilic bacteria, Geobacillus toebii sub. sp. decanicus and Geobacillus thermoleovorans sub. sp. stromboliensis: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies. Chemical Engineering Journal, 152(1), 195-206.
Rajesh, V., & Rajesh, N. (2015). An indigenous Halomonas BVR1 strain immobilized in crosslinked chitosan for adsorption of lead and cadmium. International journal of biological macromolecules, 79, 300-308.
Ryan, T. P., Morgan, J. P., (2011). Modern Experimental Design. J. Stat. Theory Pract., 1(3-4): 501-506
Salinas, E., de Orellano, M. E., Rezza, I., Martinez, L., Marchesvky, E., & de Tosetti, M. S. (2000). Removal of cadmium and lead from dilute aqueous solutions by Rhodotorula rubra. Bioresource Technology, 72(2), 107-112.
Sayyadi, S., Ahmady-Asbchin, S., Kamali, K., & Tavakoli, N. (2017). Thermodynamic, equilibrium and kinetic studies on biosorption of Pb+ 2 from aqueous solution by Bacillus pumilus sp. AS1 isolated from soil at abandoned lead mine. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 80, 701-708.
Shahriari Moghadam, S., Safaei, N., & Ebrahimipour, G. H. (2016). Optimization of phenol biodegradation by efficient bacteria isolated from petrochemical effluents. Global Journal of Environmental Science and Management, 2(3), 249.
Siripornadulsil, S., & Siripornadulsil, W. (2013). Cadmium-tolerant bacteria reduce the uptake of cadmium in rice: potential for microbial bioremediation. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 94, 94-103.
Wang, J., & Chen, C. (2006). Biosorption of heavy metals by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a review. Biotechnology advances, 24(5), 427-451.
Wei, G., Fan, L., Zhu, W., Fu, Y., Yu, J., & Tang, M. (2009). Isolation and characterization of the heavy metal resistant bacteria CCNWRS33-2 isolated from root nodule of Lespedeza cuneata in gold mine tailings in China. Journal of hazardous materials, 162(1), 50-56.
Wiegand, I., Hilpert, K., & Hancock, R. E. (2008). Agar and broth dilution methods to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antimicrobial substances. Nature protocols, 3(2), 163-75.
Wu, W., Huang, H., Ling, Z., Yu, Z., Jiang, Y., Liu, P., & Li, X. (2016). Genome sequencing reveals mechanisms for heavy metal resistance and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation in Delftia lacustris strain LZ-C. Ecotoxicology, 25(1), 234-247.
Yang, J., & Volesky, B. (1999). Biosorption of uranium on Sargassum biomass. Water Research, 33(15), 3357-3363.
Zhang, X., Yang, L., Li, Y., Li, H., Wang, W. and Ye, B. (2012). Impacts of lead/zinc mining and smelting on the environment and human health in China. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 184(4), 2261-2273.