The Effect of Winter Olive and Apricot Leave Residues on Soil Structural Stability using HEMC Method in Different Soil Salinity Levels

Document Type : Research Paper


Assistant professor, Water and Soil Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrood University of Technology; Shahrood, Iran


Soil improvement with plant residues incorporation influences many soil properties. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of apricot and winter olive leaves (0, 1 and 3 g residue 100g-1 soil) on the soil structural stability using high energy moisture curve (HEMC) method in different soil salinity levels (1, 5 and 10 dS m-1). Apricot residues increased the soil organic carbon content and diluted acid carbohydrates and decreased the soil basal respiration more than the winter olive leaves. Increasing residues and salinity levels have also increased the soil organic carbon and the carbohydrates concentration in the soil. Also, the soil basal respiration has been reduced by increasing salinity. There were no significant differences between the apricot and winter olive residues in terms of their effectiveness on the soil drainable porosity (VDP), the soil suction in inflection point (τd) and the stability index (SI) in slow wetting method. However, the apricot leaves increased the soil drainable porosity and the stability index more than the winter olive in fast wetting method. This finding shows the different response and the structural instability of the soil for the two proposed organic matters. Plant residues increment by improving soil carbon and carbohydrates concentration, and salinity increment by improving divalent cation concentration have enhanced the soil stability ratio and the soil VDP ratio in both; fast and slow wetting methods. The results of this study showed that the application of native crop residues in the soils with low organic matter could improve the soil physical characteristics and these changes probably recover the soil physical fertility in the long term application.


Main Subjects

Akbari, F., Pouri, K., Kamkar, B., and Alimoghadam, S.I. (2012). The effect of wheat, alfalfa, corn, soybeans and cotton on soil K and its uptake by wheat plants. Journal of Agroecology, 2, 163–171. (In Farsi)
Alef, K. (1995). Soil respiration. In Alef, K., and Nannipieri, P. (Eds.), Methods in applied soil microbiology and biochemistry. (pp. 214–216). London: Harcourt Brace and Company Pub. 
Bhattacharyya, R., Chandra, S., Singh, R.D., Kundu, S., Srivastva, A.K. and Gupta, H.S. (2007). Long-term farmyard manure application effects on properties of a silty clay loam soil under irrigated wheat-soybean rotation. Soil and Tillage Research, 94, 386–396. 
Blanco-Canqui, H. and Lal R. (2009). Extent of soil water repellency under long-term no-till soils. Geoderma, 149, 171–180. 
Bronick, C. J. and Lal, R. (2005). Soil structure and management: a review. Geoderma, 124, 3–22. 
Burt, R. (2004). Soil survey laboratory methods manual: Soil survey investigations. United States: Natural Resources Conservation Service.  
Celik, I., Gunal, H., Budak, M., and Akpinar, C. (2010). Effects of long-term organic and mineral fertilizers on bulk density and penetration resistance in semi-arid Mediterranean soil conditions. Geoderma, 160, 236–243.
Collis-George, N. and Figueroa, B. S. (1984). The use of high energy moisture characteristic to assess soil stability. Australian Journal of Soil Resreach, 22, 349–356.
Crescimanno, G.,  Iovino, M. and  Provenzano, G. (1995). Influence of salinity and sodicity on soil structural and hydraulic characteristics. Soil Science Society of  American Journal, 59, 1701–1708.
Czarnes, S., Hallett, P.D., Bengough, A.G. and Young, I. M. (2000). Root and microbial-derived
mucilages affect soil structure and water transport. European Journal of Soil Science, 51, 435–443.
Dubois, M., Gilles, K. A., Hamilton, J. K., Rebers, P.A. and Smith, F. (1956). Colorimetric method of determination of sugars and related substances. Analytical Chemistry,  28, 350–356.   
Falahati Marvast, A., Hosseinpu, A. and Tabatabaei, S.H. (2013). Effect of salinity and sewage sludge on heavy metal availability and uptake by barley plant. Journal of Water and Soil, 27, 985–997.  (In Farsi)
Hajiboland, R. (2013). Role of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza in Amelioration of Salinity. In P. Ahmad, M.M. Azooz, and M.N.V. Prasad, (Eds.), Salt Stress in Plants: Signalling, Omics and Adaptations. (pp. 301–354). New York: Springer.
Hosseini, F., Mosaddeghi, M. R., Hajabbasi, M. A. and Mamedov, A. I. (2017). Effects of endophyte-infected and non-infected tall fescue residues on aggregate stability in four texturally different soils. Geoderma, 285, 195-205.
Jafari, S., Chorom, M., Enayatizamir, N. and Motamedi, H. (2013). Effect of Bacillus subtilis and Coryne bacterium on some of soil microbial indexes in different salinity levels. Journal of agricultural engineering, 35, 55–70. (In Farsi)
Kaplan, D.I., Bertsch, P.M. and Adriano, D.C. (1997). Mineralogical and physicochemical differences between mobile and non-mobile colloidal phases in reconstructed pedons. Soil Science Society American Journal, 61, 641–649.
Killi, D. and Kavdir, Y. (2013). Effects of olive solid waste and olive solid waste compost application on soil properties and growth of Solanum lycopersicum. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 82, 157–165.
Levy, G. J. and Mamedov, A. I.. (2002). High-energy-moisture-characteristic aggregate stability as a predictor for seal formation. Soil Science Society of  American Journal, 66, 1603–1609.
Liang, Y., Nikolic, M., Peng, Y., Chen, W. and Jiang, Y. (2005). Organic manure stimulates biological activity and barley growth in soil subject to secondary salinization. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 37, 185–1195. 
Liu, A., Ma, B.L. and Bomke, A.A. (2005). Effects of cover crops on soil aggregate stability, total organic carbon, and polysaccharides. Soil Science Society of  American Journal, 69, 2041–2048.
Mamedov, A.I., Bar-Yosef, B., Levkovich, I., Rosenberg, R., Silber, A., Fine, P. and Levy, G.J., (2014). Amending soil with sludge, manure, humic acid, orthophosphate and phytic acid: effects on aggregate stability. Soil Research, 52, 317–326.
Mirzaee, M. and Mahmoudabadi, M. (2015). Effect of different type and management of crop residues on soil physical properties and water infiltration. Journal of soil researches, 28, 659–671. (In Farsi)
Nahidan, S. and Nourbakhsh, F. (2010). Effect of Soil organic carbon history on some of soil biological properties. 11th Iranian Soil Congress. (In Farsi)
Nottidge, D.O., Ojeniyi, S.O. and Asawalam, D.O. (2005). Comparative effects of plant residues and fertilizer on soil properties in a humid ultisol. Nigerian Journal of Soil Science, 15, 9–13. 
Pierson, F. B. and Mulla, D. J. (1989). An improved method for measuring aggregate stability of a weakly aggregated loessial soil. Soil Science Society of  American Journal, 53, 1825–1831.
Raiesi, F. and Aghababae, F. )2011( The decomposability of some plant residues and their susbsequent influence on soil microbial respiration and biomass, and enzyme activity. Journal of Water and Soil, 25, 863–873. (In Farsi)
Rietz, D.N. and Haynes, R.J. (2003). Effects of irrigation- induced salinity and sodicity on soil microbial activity. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 35, 845–854. 
Sambandan, K. (2014). Studies on Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) profiles of coastal soils in Karaikal district, U.T of Puducherry, India. International Journal of Multidisciplinary and Current Research, 2, 307–312.
Shaver, T. M., Peterson, G.A. and Sherrod, L.A. (2003). Cropping intensification in dry land systems improves soil physical properties: regression relations. Geoderma, 116, 149–164. 
Sillers, W. S., Fredlund, D. G. and Zakerzadeh, N. (2001). Mathematical attributes of some soil-water charectristic curve models. Geotechnical & Geological Engineering, 19, 243–283.
Singh, Y., Singh, B., and Timsina, J. (2005). Crop residue management for nutrient cycling and improving soil productivity in rice-based cropping systems in the tropics. Advances in Agronomy, 85, 289–407. 
Tisdall, J. M. and Oades, J. M. (1982). Organic matter and water-stable aggregates in soil. Journal of soil science, 33, 141–163.
Yuan, B.C., Li, Z.Z., Liu, H., Gao, M. and Zhang, Y.Y.(2007). Microbial biomass and activity in salt affected soils under arid conditions. Applied Soil Ecology, 35, 319–328.
Zubair, M., Anwar, F., Ashraf, M., Ashraf A. and Chatha, S.A.S. (2012). Effect of green and farmyard manure on carbohydrates dynamics of salt-affected soil. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 12, 497–510.