Response to phosphorus deficiency stress among winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) cultivars

Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD student of Department of Soil Science Eng., University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

2 Professor of Department of Soil Science Eng., University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

3 scientific stuff of soil and water research institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran

4 Proffesor of Department of Soil Science Eng., University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

5 Scientific stuff of Soil & Water Research Institute,Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran


Abstract: Due to the vital role of phosphorus as an effective element in plant cell metabolism, it is considered as an important macro-nutrient for plants. Introducing new cultivars of plants that take up and use phosphorus efficiently can reduce financial and environmental cost of phosphate fertilizers. Rapeseed as an important oilseed crop is widely grown around the world, including Iran. This greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine relative use or acquisition efficiency of seven winter rapeseed cultivars (Talaye, Okapi, L72, Gabriela, Karaj, Brutus, Elvis) in deficiently (0 mg P kg-1 add to soil with 4.6 mg Olsen P kg-1 ) and adequately supplied P condition (80 mg P kg-1 add to soil). Shoot and root dry weight, leaf area, root volume, P and Ca uptake in root and shoot and P efficiency was measured and compared. The rhizobag technique was used for accessing rhizosphere soil. Based on the results, cultivars such as Gabriela with higher P uptake efficiency produced more biomass in phosphorus deficiency condition. There was significant variation in PE among the cultivars ranging from 0.25(Elvis) to 0.62 (Gabriela) and PACE ranged from 0.16 (Elvis) to 0.47 (Gabriela) and PUI (g2 SDW mg-1 P) ranged from 0.12 (Elvis) to 0.38 (Gabriela). Interaction effect of soil type (rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere) and P rate on soil pH was significant. It seems that P efficiency and biomass production in these cultivars was primarily due to their acquisition efficiency of P and Ca with larger root system and increase in P mobility and uptake from the soil and P use efficiency was in the next order of importance at P stress environment.


Main Subjects

Agricultural Ministry of Iran, (2014). Office of statistics and information technology, bureau of agricultural statistics and information technology statistics. Ministry of Agriculture. Retrieved February 23, 2016 from (In Farsi)
Akhtar, M., Oki, Y., & Adachi, T. (2007 a). Genetic diversity in Brassica cultivars under deficiently buffered P stress environment: I. biomass accumulation, P concentration, P uptake, and related growth parameters. Journal of American Science, 3(2), 55-63.
Akhtar, M. S., Oki, Y., & Adachi, T. (2007 b). Genetic diversity in Brassica cultivars under deficiently buffered P stress environment: II. Percent distribution of biomass and P concentration, P stress factor and P utilization efficiency. Journal of American Science, 3(2), 64-72.
Akhtar, M. S., Oki, Y., & Adachi, T. (2007 c). Genetic diversity in Brassica cultivars under deficiently buffered P stress environment: III. Leaf area (LA), P-stress induced percent reductions in LA, P absorption, transport and utilization rates. Journal of American Science, 3(2), 73-82. 
Akhtar, M. S., Oki, Y., & Adachi, T. (2009 a). Mobilization and acquisition of sparingly soluble P sources by Brassica Cultivars under P‐Starved Environment: I. Differential growth response, P‐efficiency characteristics and P remobilization. Journal of integrative plant biology, 51(11), 1008-1023.
Akhtar, M. S., Oki, Y., & Adachi, T. (2009 b). Mobilization and acquisition of sparingly soluble P sources by Brassica cultivars under P starved environment II. Rhizospheric pH changes, redesigned root architecture and Pi uptake kinetics. Journal of integrative plant biology, 51(11), 1024-1039.
Aziz, T., Ahmed, I., Farooq, M., Maqsood, M. A., & Sabir, M. (2011). Variation in phosphorus efficiency among Brassica cultivars I: Internal utilization and phosphorus remobilization. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 34(13), 2006-2017.
Aziz, T., Rahmatullah, M. A., Maqsood, M. A., Tahir, I. A., & Mumtaz, A. C. (2006). Phosphorus utilization by six Brassica cultivars (Brassica juncea L.) from tri-calcium phosphate; a relatively insoluble P compound. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 38(5), 1529-1538.
Bleiholder, H., Weber, E., Lancashire, P., Feller, C., Buhr, L., Hess, M., Klose, R. (2001). Growth stages of mono-and dicotyledonous plants, BBCH Monograph. Federal Biological Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Berlin, Germany.
Bowman, R. (1988). A rapid method to determine total phosphorus in soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 52(5), 1301-1304.
Burt, R., & Staff, S. (2014).  Soil Survey Laboratory Methods. Manual. Natural Resources Conservation Services. National Soil Survey Center, Lincoln, Nebraska.
Chapman, H. D., & Pratt, P. F. (1962). Methods of analysis for soils, plants and waters. Soil Science, 93(1), 68.
Damon, P., Osborne, L., & Rengel, Z. (2007). Canola genotypes differ in potassium efficiency during vegetative growth. Euphytica, 156(3), 387-397,
Devau, N., Le Cadre, E., Hinsinger, P., Gérard, F. ( 2010) A mechanistic model for understanding root-induced chemical changes controlling phosphorus availability. Annals of Botany. 105, 1183–1197.
Elanchezhian, R., Krishnapriya, V., Pandey, R., Rao, A. S., & Abrol, Y. P. (2015). Physiological and molecular approaches for improving phosphorus uptake efficiency of crops. Current Science, 108(7), 1271-1279.
Elmer, P., Conn, N. (1982). Analytical methods for atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Perkin Elmer, Norwalk, CT.
Eskandarzadeh, Y., & Baghdadi, M. (1985). Semi-detailed soil survey and classification of Qazvin province plain lands (Iran). Project final report, 663, Soil and Water Research Institute, Karaj, Iran. (In Farsi).
Gee, G., & Bauder J. (1986). Particle-size Analysis. In: A. Klute, (ed), Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 1, Physical and Mineralogical Methods. SSSA and ASA, Madison, WI, pp. 383-411.
Gonzaga, M. I. S., Santos, J. A., & Ma, L. Q. (2006). Arsenic chemistry in the rhizosphere of Pteris vittata L. and Nephrolepis exaltata L. Environmental Pollution, 143(2), 254-260.
Hammond, J. P., Broadley, M. R., White, P. J., King, G. J., Bowen, H. C., Hayden, R., & Spracklen, W.P. (2009). Shoot yield derives phosphorus use efficiency in Brassica oleracea and correlates with root architecture traits. Journal of experimental botany, 60(7), 1953-1968.
Hawkesford, M. J., & Barraclough, P. (2011). The molecular and physiological basis of nutrient use efficiency in crops: John Wiley & Sons.
Hinsinger, P. & Gilkes, R. J. (1996). Mobilization of phosphate from phosphate rock and alumina–sorbed phosphate by the roots of ryegrass and clover as related to rhizosphere pH. European Journal of Soil Science, 47(4), 533-544.
Keren, R., Sparks, D., Page, A., Helmke, P., Loeppert, R., Soltanpour, P., Tabatabai, M., Johnston, C., & Sumner, M. (1996). Boron. Methods of soil analysis. Part 3-chemical methods. 603-626.
Knight, S., Morris, N., Goulding, K.W.T., Johnston, A. E., Poulton, P. R., & Philpott, H. (2014). Identification of critical soil phosphate (P) levels for cereal and oilseed rape crops on a range of soil types. (HGCA Project Report No. 529). 74pp. HGCA/AHDB, Stoneleigh, UK.
Korkmaz, K., & Altıntaş, Ç. (2016). Phosphorus Use Efficiency in Canola Genotypes. Turkish Journal of Agriculture-Food Science and Technology4(6), 424-430.
Lindsay, W. L., & Norvell, W. A. (1978). Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese, and copper. Soil Science Society American Journal, 42, 421-428.
Loeppert, R. H., & Suarez, D. L. (1996). Carbonate and Gypsum. In: D. L. Sparks, (ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 3, Chemical Methods, SSSA and ASA, Madison, W. I.; pp. 437-474.
McGrath, S., Shen, Z., & Zhao, F. (1997). Heavy metal uptake and chemical changes in the rhizosphere of Thlaspi caerulescens and Thlaspi ochroleucum grown in contaminated soils. Plant and Soil, 188(1), 153-159.
Moorby, H., White, R. E. & Nye, P. H. (1988). The influence of phosphate nutrition on H ion efflux from the roots of young rape plants. Plant and Soil,105(2), 247-256.
Murphy, J., & Riley, J. P. (1962). A modified single solution method for the determination of phosphate in natural waters. Analytica chimica acta, 27, 31-36.
Nelson, D., & Sommers, L. (1996). Total Carbon, Organic Carbon, and Organic Matter. In: D.L. Sparks (ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 3, Chemical Methods. SSSA and ASA, Madison, W. I, pp. 961-1010.
Olsen, S.R., & Sommers, L.E. (1982). Phosphorus. In A.L. Page et al. (eds.), Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties of Phosphorus.  2nd ed. Agronomy Monograph. 9. ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI. pp. 403-430.
Orlovius, K. (2003). Oilseed rape. Fertilizing for High Yield and Quality, Bulletin 16. Retrieved February 23, 2016, from
Ozturk, L., Eker, S., Torun, B., & Cakmak, I. (2005). Variation in phosphorus efficiency among 73 bread and durum wheat genotypes grown in a phosphorus-deficient calcareous soil. Plant and Soil, 269(1-2), 69-80.
Pearse, S. J., Veneklaas, E. J., Cawthray, G. R., Bolland, M. D., & Lambers, H. (2006). Carboxylate release of wheat, canola and 11 grain legume species as affected by phosphorus status. Plant and Soil, 288(1-2), 127-139.
Pearse, S.J., Veneklaas, E.J., Cawthray, G., Bolland, M.D. & Lambers, H. (2007). Carboxylate composition of root exudates does not relate consistently to a crop species ability to use phosphorus from aluminium, iron or calcium phosphate sources. New Phytologist, 173(1), 181-190.
Raghothama, K., & Karthikeyan, A. (2005). Phosphate acquisition, Root Physiology: from Gene to Function (pp. 37-49): Springer.
Rhoades, J. (1982). Soluble salts. In:  A. L. Page (ed.), Methods of soil analysis, Part 2, Chemical and microbiological properties, SSSA and ASA, Madison, WI, pp.  167-179.
Rose, T. J., Rengel Z., Ma, Q., & Bowden, J.W. (2007). Differential accumulation patterns of phosphorus and potassium by canola cultivars compared to wheat. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 170(3), 404-411.
Rose, T. J., & Wissuwa, M. (2012). Rethinking internal phosphorus utilization efficiency: a new approach is needed to improve PUE in grain crops. Advances in agronomy, 116, 185-217.
Santa-María, G. E., Moriconi, J. I., & Oliferuk, S. (2015). Internal efficiency of nutrient utilization: what is it and how to measure it during vegetative plant growth? Journal of experimental botany, 66(11), 3011-3018.
Self-Davis, M.L., Moore Jr, P.A. & Joern, B.C. (2000). Determination of water and ⁄ or dilute salt-extractable phosphorus. In: Methods of phosphorus analysis for soils, sediments, residuals and waters. Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin no. 396 (ed. G.M. Pierzynski), pp. 24–26. North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.
Sepehr, E., Malakouti, M.J., Kholdebarin, B., Samadi, A. and Karimian, N. (2012). Genotypic variation in P efficiency of selected Iranian cereals in greenhouse experiment. International Journal of Plant Production, 3(3), 17-28.
Shi, T., Zhao, D., Li, D., Wang, N., Meng, J., Xu, F., & Shi, L. (2012). Brassica napus root mutants insensitive to exogenous cytokinin show phosphorus efficiency. Plant and Soil, 358(1), 61-74.
Sparks, D.L., Page, A., Helmke, P., Loeppert, R., Soltanpour, P., Tabatabai, M., Johnston, C., & Sumner, M. (1996). Methods of soil analysis. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
Tehrani, M. M., Balali, M. R., Moshiri, F., & Daryashenas, A. (2012). Recommendation and the estimation of mineral fertilizers in Iran: Challenges and Solutions. Research of soil, 26(2), 123-144. (In farsi)
Tiessen, H. (2008). Phosphorus in the global environment In: P.J. White, & J.P. Hammond (eds.) The eco-physiology of plant phosphorus interactions. Dordrecht, The Netherlands (pp. 1-7): Springer.
Vance, C. P., Uhde‐Stone, C., & Allan, D. L. (2003). Phosphorus acquisition and use: critical adaptations by plants for securing a nonrenewable resource. New phytologist, 157(3), 423-447.
Walinga, I., Van Vark, W., Houba, V., & Van der Lee, J. (1989). Soil and plant analysis. Wageningen Agric. Univ. Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Zhang, H., Huang, Y., Ye, X., Shi, L., & Xu, F. (2009). Genotypic differences in phosphorus acquisition and the rhizosphere properties of Brassica napus in response to low phosphorus stress. Plant and Soil, 320(1-2), 91-102.
Zhang, H. W., Huang, Y., Xiang-Sheng, Y., & Fang-Sen, X. (2008). Evaluation of phosphorus efficiency in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) recombinant inbred lines at seedling stage. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 34(12), 2152-2159.