Experimental study of the Location and type of pits extraction on the management of bed materials mining

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Shahroud university

2 watershed institute


Rivers are one of the most important borrow aggregates and sand and gravel mining in rivers due to the morphological, hydraulic and sediment transport characteristics and methods of extraction creates many negative effects in them. In this research, the influence of distance and shape of consequent bed material mining pits is investigated in order to infilling and rehabilitation and mining management with considering of incoming sediment via an experimental study. The results indicated that, by increasing of the distance between the pits, infilling of upstream pit is constant. But extraction along channel width can increase filled volume of upstream pit up to 10% and can increase migration velocity up to 42%. When the distance between the pits doubles, extraction along channel width can increase filled volume of downstream pit up to 28% compared to the extraction along channel length and reduction of migration velocity is up to 70% in extraction along length and width.


Amiri Tokaldany, E., Azizian , A.(2011). Determining Appropriate Locations for Bed Material Extraction Using The HEC-RAS.04 Numerical Model, 5th National Conference on Civil Engineering, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Iran. (in Farsi)
Ashraf, M.A., Jamil Maah , M., Yusoff , I., Wajid, A., Mahmood,  K.(2011). Sand mining effects, causes and concerns: A casestudy from Bestari Jaya, Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia, Scientific Research and Essays, 6(6), 1216-1231
Boudaghpour, S., Hashemi Monfared, S.A.(2008). Environmental Effects of Irregular Extracting of Gravel from River Beds.  WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, 4(5)
Bruce Melton, P.E. (2009). In-stream gravel mining impacts and environmental degradation feedback associated with gravel mining on the Rio Tigre of the OSA Peninsula, Costa Rica, and the proposed ADI Jimenez Gravel Mining Concession, Melton Engineering Services Austin 8103 Kirkham Austin, Texas 78736
Decker, C., Keyes, J., Rhett Jackson, C., Shelton, J., Jackson, B.(1999). Effects of sand dredging on channel morphology, invertebrate communities and fish communities in urban dekalb county streams, Proceedings of the 1999 Georgia Water Resources Conference. USA
Ghafouri Azar, M., Davoudi , M.H., Amiri, E.(2011). Effects of Gravel and Sand Mining Pits on The River Bed Profile, 6th National Conference on civil Engineering, Semnan University,Semnan, Iran. (in Farsi)
Jang.C, Shimizu, Y., Lee, G.H.(2015). Numerical Simulation of the Fluvial Processes in the Channels by Sediment Mining” KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering 19(3):771-778
Lee, H.Y., Fu, D.T., Song, M.H.(1993). Migration of Rectangular mining pit composed of uniform sediment. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, Asce,119(1)
Li, J., Qi , M., Jin,Y.(2013). Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Riverbed Evolution in Post-Damaged Conditions, Proceeding of 2013 IAHR World Congress,China
Madyise, T.( 2013). Case study on environmental impacts of sand mining and gravel extraction for urban development in Gaborone, M.Sc. thesis, University of South Africa.
Padmalal,D., Maya , K., Sreebha , S., Sreeja,  R. (2008). Environmental effects of river sand mining: a case from the river catchments of vembanad lake, southwest coast of India. Environmental Geology, 54: 879-889.
Salehi Neishabouri, S.A.A., Farhadzadeh, A., Amini, Ata. (2002). Experimental and field study on mining–pit migration. International Journal of Sediment Research, 17(4): 323-331
Wayne, D., Geary , P.M., Outhet, D.N.(1989). Potential impacts of sand and gravel extraction on the Hunter River, New South Wales, Australian Geographical Studies.