Effect of Soil Salinity and Aeration Stresses on the Root and Yield Components in Wheat and Bean

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Zanjan University

2 University of Tehran

3 University of Zanjan


The effects of soil matric suction and salinity were investigated on the yield components and root development of the corps, wheat and bean within greenhouse conditions. The results showed that yield components and root dry weights of wheat and bean increased with increase in matric suction (from 2kPa) and reached their maximum values at suctions of 6-10 kPa. At suctions higher than 10kPa and under EC≤8dSm-1 for wheat vs. EC≤4dSm-1 for bean, all the yield components of wheat and bean (except for 1000-kernel weight) decreased, while under higher salinities, their values remained nearly the same. At suctions higher than 10kPa and under all salinity levels, 1000-kernel weights of wheat and bean remained nearly constant. The salinities of low to medium levels did not clearly affect yield and root development of either plant. Minimum root densities of wheat and bean occurred at suction 6kPa while at other points of suction (2, 10 and 33kPa), their values almost corresponded with each other. Salinity did not clearly affect wheat and bean root densities. Wheat shoot-root ratio decreased with matric suction (up to 10kPa) under EC≤8dSm-1, while under higher salinities, this ratio increased with suctions. At 10kPa suction, weight ratio values approached each other, then remained nearly constant at higher suctions. The results finally revealed  that plant response to salinity stress depends on aeration conditions in the root zone and the deficit in  soil aeration can amplify the salinity stress.


Main Subjects

Abedi, R.A., Tadayyon, A. and Aminian, R. (2005). Economic Investigation of Common Bean in Chaharmohal and Bakhtiari. The first conference of national grain. Ferdowsi university of mashhad. 172-176. (In Farsi).
Aggarwal, P.K., Kalra, N., Singh, A.K. and Singha, S.K. (1994). Analyzing the limitations set by climatic factors, genotype, and water and nitrogen availability on productivity of wheat I. The model description, parameterization and validation. Field Crops Research. 38, 73-91.
Andrenelli, M.C., Mocali, S., Pellegrini, S. and Vignozzi, N. (2016). Modification of hydrological properties in a fine textured soil following field application of pelletized biochar: investigation of the mechanism involved. EGU General Assembly in Vienna Austria. p. 12847.
Bagheri, A., Nezami, A. and Persa, H. (2006). An Analysis to Strategy of Pulse Research in Iran Based Upon the First National Pulse Symposium Approaches. Iranian agricultural research. Science information database, 4, 1-13. (In Farsi).
Barrett-Lennard, E. G. (2003). The interaction between waterlogging and salinity in higher plants: causes, consequences and implications. Plant and Soil. 253, 35-54.
Bhattarai, S. P., Su, N. and Midmore, D. J. (2005). Oxygen unlocks yield potential of crops in oxygen-limited soil environments. Advances in Agronomy. 88, 313-377.
Brzezinska, M., Wodarczyk, T. and Glinski, J. (2004). Effect of methane on soil dehydrogenase activity. International Agrophysics. 18, 213–216.
Carter, J. L., Colmer, T. D. and Veneklaas, E. J. (2006). Variable tolerance of wetland tree species to combined salinity and waterlogging is related to regulation of ion uptake and production of organic solutes. New Phytologist. 69, 123–134.
Chapman, H. D. and Pratt, F. P. (1982). Determination of Minerals by Titration Method Methods of Analysis forSoils,Plants and Water 2(Edn.), CaliforniandUniversity, Agriculture Division, USA., PP: 169-170.
Cha-um, S., Pokasombat, Y. and Kirdmanee, C. (2011). Remediation of salt-affected soil by gypsum and farmyard manure − Importance for the production of Jasmine rice. Australian Journal of Crop Science. 5, 458-465.
Conaty, W. C., Tan, D. K. Y., Constable, G. A., Sutton, B. G., Field, D.J., Mamum, E. A. (2008). Genetic variation for waterlogging tolerance in cotton. Journal of Cotton Science. 12, 53–61.
Coohi Chelecaran, N., Alizade, A., Davari, K. (2015). The effect of different amounts of irrigation on root length density and corn yield in drip irrigation and. J. Water research in Agriculchur. 29, 331-340. (In Farsi).
Dane, J. H., Hopmans, J. (2002). Water retention and storage: Laboratory, Introduction. In Dane, J. H. and Topp, G. C. (ed.) Methods of soil analysis. Part 4: Physical Methods. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Book Ser 5. Soil Science Society of America, USA. pp: 675–680.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization), (2002). Agricultural drainage water management in arid and semi-arid areas. Annex 1. Crop salt tolerance data. FAO, Rome. Available from http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/y4263e/y4263e0e.htm.
Gee, G. W. and Or, D. (2002). Particle-size analysis. In Dane, J. H., and Topp, G. C. (ed.) Methods of soil analysis. Part 4. Book Ser. 5. Soil Science Society of America Journal. Pp, 255–293.
Hasanuzzaman, M., Nahar, K., Fujita, M. (2013). Plant response to salt stress and role of exogenous protectants to mitigate salt-induced damages. In: Ahma, P.; Azooz, M. M.; Prasad, M. N. V. (Eds.), Ecophysiology and Responses of Plants Under Salt Stress. Springer. New York. 25-87.
Jaleel, C. A., Manivannan, P., Wahid, A., Farooq, M., Somasundaram, R. and Panneerselvam, R. (2009). Drought stress in plants: a review on morphological characteristics and pigments composition. International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering. 11, 100–105.
Jarecke, K.M., Loecke, T.D. and Burgin, A.J. (2016). Coupled soil oxygen and greenhouse gas dynamics under variable hydrology. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 95, 164-172.
Jiang, H., Du, H., Bai, Y.,  Hu, Y., Rao, Y., , Chen, C.,, and Cai, Y. (2016). Effects of spatiotemporal variation of soil salinity on fine root distribution in different plant configuration modes in new reclamation coastal saline field. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 23, 6639-6650.
Kiani, A.R. and Raeisi, S. (2013). Assessment of water use efficiency in some soybean cultivars under different amount of irrigation. Journal of Water and Soil Conservation. 20, 179-192.
Kotula, L., Khan H. A., Quealy, J., Turner, N. C., Vadez, V., Siddique, K. H., et al. (2015). Salt sensitivity in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.): ions in reproductive tissues and yield components in contrasting genotypes. Plant Cell Environ. 38 1565–1577.
Liu, H., Li, F. and Jia, Y. (2006). Effects of shoot removal and soil water content on root respiration of spring wheat and soybean. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 56, 28–35.
Liu, B., Asseng, S., Liu, L., Tang, L., Cao, W. and Zhu, Y. (2016). Testing the responses of four wheat crop models to heat stress at anthesis and grain filling. Global Change Biology. 22, 1890-1903.
Maghsoudi Moud, A. and Maghsoudi, K. (2008). Salt Stress Effects on Respiration and Growth of Germinated Seeds of Different Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivars. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 4, 351-358.
Manosalva, P. M., Davidson, R. M. Liu, B., Zhu, X., Hulbert, S. H. Leung, H. and Leach, J. E. (2009). A germin-Like protein gene family functions as a complex quantitative trait locus conferring broad-spectrum disease resistance in rice. Plant Physiolgy. 149, 286–296.
Meskini-Vishkaee F, Mohammadi M H, Neishaboori M R, Shekari F. (2016). Effect of soil moisture on Wheat and Canola root respiration rates in two soil textures.  Plant Process and Function. 4 , 177-188.
Meskini-Vishkaee, F., Mohammadi, M. H., Neyshabouri, M. R. and Shekari, F. (2015). Evaluation of canola chlorophyll index and leaf nitrogen under wide range of soil moisture. International Agrophysics. 29, 83-90.
Mohammadi, M. H., Asadzadeh, F. and Vanclooster, M. (2010). Refining and unifying the upper limits of the least limiting water range using soil and plant properties. Plant and Soil, 334, 210-222.
Mott, I. W. and Wang, R. R. C. (2007). Comparative transcriptome analysis of salt-tolerant wheat germplasm lines using wheat genome arrays. Plant Science. 173, 327-339.
Munns, R. and Tester, M. (2008). Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annu Rev. Plant Biology. 59, 651-681.
Najafi, N. and Sarhangzade, A. (2012). The effect of NaCl salinity and soil waterlogging on the growth characteristics of maize under greenhouse conditions. Journal of Greenhouse Culture Science and Technology. 3, 1-15.
Olsen, S. R., Cole, C. V., Watanabe, F. S. and Dean, L. A. (1954). Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. USDA Circular. 939.
Parida, A. K., Das, A. B. (2005). Salt tolerance and salinity effects on plants. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 60, 324–349.
Pordel, R., Esfehani, M., Kafi, M., Nezami, A. (2014). Effect of waterlogging stress on root and shoot growth of stevia. 13th Conferences of Iranian Crop Sciences and 2th Conferences of Science and Technology Seed (In Farsi with English abstract). http://www.civilica.com/Paper-Nabatat13-Nabatat13_0771.
Promkhambut, A., Polthanee, A., Akkasaeng, C. and Younger, A. (2011). A flood-free periodcombined with early planting is required to sustain yield of pre-rice sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolorL. Moench). Acta Agriculture Scandinavica. 61, 345-355.
Razavi Nasab, A., Shirani, H., Tajabadi pour, A., Dashti, H. (2011). Effect of salinity and organic matters on chemical composition and root morphology of pistachio seedlings. Journal Crop Improvement. 13,31-42. (In Farsi with English abstract).
Razzaghi, F., Ahmadi, S. H., Adolf, V. I., Jensen, C. R., Jacobsen, S. E. and Andersen, M. N. (2011). Water relations and transpiration of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) under salinity and soil drying. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 197, 348–360.
Reginato, M., Travaglia, C., Reinoso, H., Garello, F., Luna, V., 2016. Salt mixtures induce anatomical modifications in the halophyte Prosopis strombulifera (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae). Flora. 218, 75–85.
Sairam, R. K. and Tyagi, A. (2004). Physiology and molecular biology of salinity stress tolerance in plants. Current Science. 86, 407-421.
Steffens, B., and Rasmussen, A. (2016). The Physiology of Adventitious Roots. Plant Physiology. 170:603-617.Shi, H., Chen, F. and Wang, H. (2011). Using the energy integral of soil water retention curve to evaluate the soil water availability, IEEE. Pp, 1632-1635.
Sun, J., Yang, G., Zhang, W. and Zhang, Y. (2016). Effects of heterogeneous salinity on growth, water uptake, and tissue ion concentrations of alfalfa. Plant and soil. DOI: 10.1007/s11104-016-2922-1.
Zhang, H. J., Dong, H. Z., Li, W. J. and Zhang, D. M. (2011). Effects of soil salinity and plant density on yield and leaf senescence of field grown cotton. Journal Agronomy Crop Science. 198: 27–37.
Zhu, J. K. (2007). Operator theory in function spaces. First edition.