کاربرد طرح مرکب مرکزی برای پیش‌بینی تلفات خاک و سرعت رواناب سطحی در حضور سنگریزه‌ی سطحی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیات علمی گروه مهندسی علوم خاک دانشگاه ارومیه

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه

3 دانشیار گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

اثر پوشش سنگریزه­ی سطحی بر فرآیند­های فرسایش آبی، از موضوعات مهم و مورد توجه در تحقیقات فرسایش خاک در طول دو دهه­ی اخیر محسوب می­شود. اثرات گوناگون متغیرهای مربوط به سنگریزه­ی سطحی نظیر پوشش، اندازه و موقعیت سنگریزه سبب پیچیدگی مدل­سازی نقش آن در فرسایش خاک می­گردد. هدف از این مطالعه، مدل­سازی کمی اثر توأم پوشش سنگریزه­ی سطحی، اندازه­ی سنگریزه و دبی جریان بر تلفات خاک و سرعت رواناب سطحی با استفاده از روش پاسخ سطح و بر مبنای طرح مرکب مرکزی بود. برای این منظور آزمایش­های شبیه­سازی رواناب و فرسایش با استفاده از فلومی با ابعاد 5/0×6 متر در دو سری طراحی و اجرا شد. دامنه­ی پوشش سنگریزه­ی سطحی برابر با 45-0 درصد، قطر متوسط سنگریزه­ها برابر با 9-3 سانتی­متر و دبی جریان برابر با 5-67/1 سانتی­مترمربع بر ثانیه در نظر گرفته شد. آزمایش­های سری دوم برای مدل­سازی با استفاده از طرح مرکب مرکزی مورد استفاده واقع شده و آزمایش­های سری اول نیز برای اعتبارسنجی مدل توسعه داده شده از سری دوم به کار برده شدند. نتایج نشان داد که مدل طرح مرکب مرکزی توانایی بالایی در پیش­بینی سرعت جریان آب (993/0= R2) و تلفات خاک (994/0= R2) دارد. نتایج اعتبار سنجی مدل بیانگر کارآمدی مدل در پیش­بینی سرعت جریان رواناب (887/0= R2) و تلفات خاک (851/0= R2) برای آزمایش­های سری دوم بود. پوشش سنگریزه، دبی جریان و قطر سنگریزه­ها به ترتیب بیش­ترین تاثیر را بر سرعت جریان و تلفات خاک داشته و بین پوشش سنگریزه و دبی جریان اثر متقابل وجود داشت. بین سرعت جریان و تلفات خاک یک رابطه­ی خطی و معنی­دار (504/0= R2) مشاهده شد.  

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Application of the Central Composite Design for Predicting the Effects of Surface Rock Fragments on Soil Loss and Surface Flow Velocity

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farrokh Asadzadeh 1
  • Mohioddin Feghhe Hasan Agha 2
  • Habib Khodaverdiloo 3
چکیده [English]

The effect of surface rock fragments on soil erosion processes has been an important challenge in erosion studies during the last two decades. Rock fragment characteristics including size, position and coverage may affect soil erosion and cause a complication in predicting their effects on soil loss. The aim of this study was to model the effects of rock fragment coverage, size and the flow rate on soil loss and surface flow velocity employing response surface method and central composite design. Two sets of run-on simulation experiments were carried out in a laboratory flume (6×0.5m). The range of the independent variables were 0-45 percent for rock fragment coverage, 3-9cm for rock fragments diameter (size) and 1.67-5 cm3cm-1s-1 for flow rate. The second set of experiments used to develop the predictive model based on the central composite design and the results of the first set of experiments were applied to validate the predictive model. Results indicated that the central composite design models have high performance in predicting flow velocity (R2=0.993) and soil loss (R2=0.994). Models validation with the first data set also indicated a good agreement between the predictive values of flow velocity (R2=0.887) and soil loss (R2=0.851) with the experimental values of these two variables. Rock fragments coverage, flow rate and the size of the rock fragments have the highest influence on soil loss and flow velocity, respectively. There was a significant interaction between the flow rate and rock fragment coverage, which should be considered in modeling of their effects. A linear relationship was also observed between the flow velocity and soil loss.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Soil surface cover
  • Run-on simulation
  • Response Surface Methodology
  • Soil Erosion
  • modeling
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