Evaluate and develop new relationships to estimate submerged hydraulic jump characteristics

Document Type : Research Paper



In this research, in order to develop new relationships with reasonable accuracy for estimation of the ‎submerged hydraulic jump characteristics, a study has been conducted experimentally. Experiments have ‎been done in a rectangular channel with a length of 9 m, a width of 0.5 m and a depth of 0.45 m. Froude ‎numbers in these tests range from 3.5 to 11.5 and between submergence ratios of 0.1 to 4. According to the results, the water surfaces profiles have been obtained in different Froude numbers and submergence ‎ratios. Also, some relationships with high accuracy to estimate such characteristics as jump length, ‎submerged depth on the gate, and the relative energy loss have been developed. The results also showed ‎that, in a given Froude number, length and relative energy loss for submerged hydraulic jump are, respectively, more and less than those for free hydraulic jumps. In addition, for submerged hydraulic jump, ‎at a given Froude number, by increasing the submergence ratio, the jump length and submergence depth on the gate increases and relative energy loss decreases. Finally, using sensitivity analysis technique, the ‎effectiveness of dominant parameters on the developed expressions on the changes in submergence depth ‎on the gate parameters and relative energy loss has been determined.


Main Subjects

Abdel-Aal, G. M. (2004). Modeling of rectangular submerged hydraulic jumps. Alexandria Engineering Journal43(6), 865-873.
Bradley, J. N., & Peterka, A. J. (1957). The hydraulic design of stilling basins: hydraulic jumps on a horizontal apron (basin i). Journal of the Hydraulics Division83(5), 1-24.
Castro-Orgaz, O., Mateos, L., & Dey, S. (2012). Revisiting the energy-momentum method for rating vertical sluice gates under submerged flow conditions. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering139(4), 325-335.
Ead, S. A., & Rajaratnam, N. (2002). Plane turbulent wall jets in shallow tailwater. Journal of engineering mechanics128(2), 143-155.
Ghassemi, A., Soltani, A. and Raeesi Estabragh, A. (2015). Laboratory modeling of the free swelling and swelling pressure curves for high plasticity clays stabilized with chemical additives. In Proceeding of 10th International Congress on Civil Engineering, Tabriz, Iran
Hager, W. H., Bremen, R., & Kawagoshi, N. (1990). Classical hydraulic jump: length of roller. Journal of Hydraulic Research28(5), 591-608.
Khatibi, M., Estabragh, A. R., Soltani, A. & Rafatjoo, H. (2014). Assessment of swelling behavior of randomly reinforced expansive soils using regression analysis. In Proceeding of 8th National conference on Civil Engineering, Babol, Iran. (In Farsi)
Kindsvater, C. E. (1944). The hydraulic jump in sloping channels. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers109(1), 1107-1120.
Long, D., Steffler, P.M. and Rajaratnam, N. (1990). "LDA study of flow structure in submerged Hydraulic jumps". J. of Hydraulic Res, 28(4), pp 437-460.
Madsen, P. A., & Svendsen, I. A. (1983). Turbulent bores and hydraulic jumps. Journal of Fluid Mechanics129, 1-25.
Mahmoodian Shooshtari, M. (2009) Principles of flow in open channels, Volume 1 (2th ed.). Shahid Chamran University Press. (In Farsi) 
Nasrabadi, M., Omid, M.H. & Farhoudi, J. (2010). “Comparative study of free and submerged hydraulic jump downstream of sluice gates”. In Proceeding of 9th Iranian Hydraulics Conference, Tehran, Iran. (In Farsi)
Rajaratnam, N. (1967). Hydraulic jumps. Advances in hydroscience4, 197-280.
Rajaratnam, N. (1968). "Hydraulic jump on rough bed". Trans. Eng. Inst. Canada, 11, pp 1-8.
Rajaratnam, N., & Subramanya, K. (1967a). Flow equation for the sluice gate.Journal of the Irrigation and Drainage Division93(3), 167-186.
Rajaratnam, N., & Subramanya, K. (1967b). Flow immediately below submerged sluice gate. Journal of the Hydraulics Division93(4), 57-77.
Ranjan, G., Vasan, R. M., & Charan, H. D. (1996). “Probabilistic analysis of randomly distributed fiber-reinforced soil”. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 122(6), 419-426.
Sivakumar Babu, G. L., & Vasudevan, A. K. (2008). “Seepage velocity and piping resistance of coir fiber mixed soils”. Journal of irrigation and drainage engineering, 134(4), 485-492.
Soltani, A., Estabragh, A. R. & Khatibi, M. (2014). Regression-aided analysis of improving piping resistance using randomly distributed fibers. In Proceeding of 8th National conference on Civil Engineering, Babol, Iran.(In Farsi)
Woodward, S. M., & Beebe, J. C. (1917). Theory of the Hydraulic Jump and Backwater Curves. State of Ohio, Miami Conservancy District.
Wu, S., & Rajaratnam, N. (1995). Free jumps, submerged jumps and wall jets. Journal of Hydraulic Research33(2), 197-212.