Investigation of Root Clogging for Different Inline Dripper under Subsurface Drip Irrigation of Grass

Document Type : Research Paper



The objective of this study was to evaluate emitters clogging by root of grass for four types of inline emitters under subsurface drip irrigation system. The experimental treatments consisted of four discharge emitters include 3.5, 4, 2.2 and 2 liters per hour (respectively T3, T2, T1 and T4).  The four treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications for two years.  The soil texture of site was silty clay loam. Uniformity indexes at the beginning and end of the experiment consists of emitter flow variation (qvar), coefficient of variation (CV), coefficient of uniformity (CU), emission uniformity (EU), Range and statistical uniformity (Us)were measured. The EU value was 96, 87, 94, and 94% for new emitter in the beginning of the experiment and was 79, 19, 45, and 85% in the terminated of the experiment for T1, T2, T3, and T4 treatments, respectively. Our results showed that emitter clogging by root were 4% for T1 and T4 treatments, 24% for T2 and 36% for T3 treatments. Based on the findings emitters that were installed in the pipe (flat integral drip line) was more efficient than the cylindrical tube emitters clogging rooted.


Main Subjects

Abdi, Q. (2003). Subsurface irrigation: a situation analysis. Institute of Sustainable Irrigated Agriculture (ISIA) at Tatura, Australia for (IPTRID).
Adin, A. and Sacks, M. (1991). Dripper clogging factors in wastewater irrigation. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 117(6), 813-826.
ASAE EP405.1. (2003). ASAE Engineering Practice EP405.1, FEB03, Design and Installation of Microirrigation Systems. ASAE, St. Joseph, Michigan, pp. 901-905.
Ascough, G. W. and Kiker, G. A. (2002). The effect of irrigation uniformity on irrigation water Requirements. Water SA, 28(2), 235-242
Ayars, J. E., Phene, C.J., Hutmacher, R. B., Davis, K. R., Schoneman, R. A., Vail, S. S. and Mead, R. M. (1999). Subsurface drip irrigation of row crops: A review of 15 years of research at the Water Management Research Laboratory. Agricultural Water Management, 42(1),1-27.
Barth, H. K. (1999). Sustainable and effective irrigation through a new subsoil irrigation system. Agricultural Water Management. 40(2), 283-290.
Bui, W. (1990). Performance of Turbo Model drip irrigation tubes. In: Proceedings of Third International Irrigation Symposium, 28 Nov., Phoenix, Arizona, ASAE, pp. 198-203.
Camp, C. R., Sadler, E. J. and Busscher, W. J. (1997). A comparison of uniformity measures for drip irrigation systems. Trans. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 40(4), 1013-1020.
Camp, C. R. (1998). Subsurface drip irrigation: A review. Trans. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 41(5), 1353-1367.
Camp, C. R., Lamm, F.R., Evans, R.G. and Phene, C.J. (2000). Subsurface drip irrigation past, present and future. In: Proceedings of the 4th Decennial National Irrigation Symposium, 14–16 November, Phoenix, Ariz, pp. 363–372.
Capra, A. and Scicolone, B. (1998). Water quality and distribution uniformity in drip/trickle irrigation systems. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research. 70(4), 355-365.
Christiansen, J. E. (1941). The uniformity of application of water by sprinkler systems. Agricultural Engineering, 22(3), 89-92.
Coelho, R. D. and Faria, L. F. (2003). Comparing drippers for root intrusion in subsurface drip irrigation applied to citrus and coffee crops.In: Presented at the Annual International Meetingof the ASAE, Las Vegas, Nevada, Jul. pp. 27-30.
Dastorani, M. T., Sadeghzadeh, M. A. and Heshmati, M. (2008). Evaluation of the efficiency of Subsurface irrigation in pistachio yield and growth. Agricultural Science and Technology. 22, 35-47.
Gilbert, R. G., Nakayama, F. S. and Bucks, D. A. (1979). Trickle irrigation: prevention of clogging. Transaction of ASAE, 22(3), 514-519. (In Farsi)
Hanson, B., Schwankl, L., Grattan, S. R. and Prichard, T. (1997). Drip irrigation for row crops. Department Land, Air and Water Research. University of California, Davis. 238 pp.
Hills, D. J., Nawar, F. M. and Waller, P. M. (1989). Effects of chemical clogging on drip tape irrigation uniformity. Transaction of ASAE, 32(4),1202-1206.
Jiang, S. and Kang, Y. (2010). Evaluation of microirrigation uniformity on laterals considering field slope. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 136(6), 429-434.
Keller, J. and Karmeli, D. (1974). Trickle irrigation design parameters. Transactions of the ASAE, 17(4), 678-684.
Keller, J. and Bliesner, R. D. (1990). Sprinkler and Trickle Irrigation. Published by Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. pp. 643.
Lamm, F. R. and Camp, C. R. (2007). Chapter 13:Subsurface drip irrigation. In Microirrigation for Crop Production: Design, Operation, and Management. Elsevier Publications, pp. 473‐551.
Mohamadzade, F., Gheysari, M. Landi, E. (2015). Development and Evaluation of Estimation Models of Wetting Pattern of Drippers in a Sandy Soil with High Gravel. Journal of water and soil science, 19 (71), 287-297. (In Farsi)
Najafi, P. (2006). Effect of using sub-surface drip irrigation to increasing WUE in irrigation of some crops. Pajouhesh and Sazandegi, 73(0), 156-162. (In Farsi)
Nakayama, F. S. and Bucks, D. A. (1991). Water quality in drip/trickle irrigation: a review. Irrigation Science, 12(4), 187-192.
Nasiri, Sh., Neshat, A., Kahnoji, M. (2011). Determine the empirical equation to estimate the average size of wetting under drip irrigation in the sandy soil (case study developed a vertical plain, Kerman). Journal of Water Resources Engineering. 1(0), 87-98. (In Farsi)
Sadeghi, S. H. and Peters, T. 2012. Analytical determination of distribution uniformity for micro-irrigation tapered laterals laid on uphill and horizontal slopes. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, ASCE, 139(6), 483–489.
Sattari, M., Razmjo, kh., Najafi, P. and Etemadi, N. (2007). Effect of soil composition and irrigation regimes on the growth and quality of sports turf. Journal of Research in Agricultural. 1(0), 45-56. (In Farsi)
Solomon, K. (1979). Manufacturing variation of trickle emitters. Transactions of the ASAE, 22(5),1034-1038.
Solomon, K. H. and Jorgensen, G. (1993). Subsurface drip irrigation. The Center for Irrigation Technology, California State University, USA.
Suarez Rey, E., Choi, C. Y., Waller, P. M. and Kopec, D. M. (2000). Comparison of subsurface drip irrigation and sprinkler irrigation for bermuda grass in Arizona. Transactions of the ASAE, 43(3),631-640.
Zarei, Gh., Nakhjavani-moghada, M. and Zolfagharian, A. (2006). Investigation the causes of dripper’s obstruction in Iran’s climate. Micro irrigation Workshop, Tehran Iran.
Zoldoske, D. (1999). Root intrusion prevention. Irrigation Journal, 49(4),14-15.