Simulation of the snow depth using Single Layer Snow Model (SLSM) at Saghez station

Document Type : Research Paper


University of Kurdistan


The aim of this study is the calibration and validation of the physical-empirical SLSM model for simulation of the snow depth in the Saghez synoptic station. For this purpose, essential daily meteorological data of the model for the time period of 1992-2014 were prepared from the Iranian Meteorological Organization and by applying the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) method, that performed by considering 15 parameters and performing 15000 simulations and using both Coefficient of Determination and Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency indices for evaluating the accuracy of the model, Calibration and validation of the model were performed for the 1992-2009 and 2010-2014 time periods, respectively. Calibration process of the model was led to extracting 108 behavioral simulations and for performing validation of the model, the median of the 108 behavioral simulations was considered as the final output of the model and compared with the measured snow depth data. The results of the model validation showed that in most of the cases, the calibrated SLSM model has an acceptable efficiency to following the fluctuations of the measured snow depth data but it partly underestimates high values of the snow depth.


Main Subjects

Beniston, M., Keller, F., Koffi, B., and Goyette, S. (2005). Estimates of snow accumulation and volume in the Swiss Alps under changing climatic conditions. Theor. Appl. Climatol. 76, 125–140.
Ebdam, S. and Fathzadeh, A. (2013). Geostatistical methods to estimate the spatial distribution of snow depth in the watershed Skhvyd. Journal of Irrigation & Water Engineering. 4(13), 113-124. (In Farsi)
Flerchinger, G. N. (1991). Sensitivity of soil freezing simulated by the SHAW model. Trans. Amer. Soc. of Agric. Engr., 34(6), 2381-2389.
Goodrich, L. E. (1982). The influence of snow covers on the ground thermal regime. Can. Geotech. J. 19, 421-432.
Gustafsson, D., Stahli, M., and Jansson, P. E. (2001). The surface energy balance of a snow cover: comparing measurements to two different simulation models. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 70, 81-96.
Jin, X., Xu, C. Y., Zhang, Q., Singh, V.P., (2010). Parameter and modeling uncertainty simulat-ed by GLUE and a formal Bayesian method for a conceptual hydrological model. Journal of Hydrology., 383(3-4), 147–155.
Jordan, R. (1991). A one-dimensional temperature model for a snow cover. Technical documentation for SNTHER M 89, Special Report 91-16, U.S ArmyCorps of Engineers, CRREL.
Juston, J. (2010). Water and Carbon Balance Modeling. Methods of Uncertainty Analysis. Licentiate Thesis in Land and Water Resources Engineering. KTH University, Stockholm, Sweden.
Keller, F., Goyette, S., and Beniston, M. (2005). Sensitivity analysis of snow covers to climate change scenarios and their impact on plant habitats in alpine terrain. Climatic Change. 72: 299–319.
Kellomäki, S., Maajärvi, M., Strandman, H., Kilpeläinen, A., and Peltola, H. (2010). Model computations on the climate change effects on snow cover, soil moisture and soil frost in the boreal conditions over Finland. Silva Fennica, 44(2): 213–233.
Khoshkhoo, Y.,  Irannejad, P., Khalili, A., Rahimi, H., and Liaghat, A. (2013). Evaluation of CoupModel for simulation of soil frost depth at Bijar synoptic station. Iranian Journal of Agriculture Meteorology. 1: 11-20. (In Farsi)
Khoshkhoo, Y., Jansson, P-E., Irannejad, P., Khalili, A., and Rahimi, H. (2015). Calibration of an energy balance model to simulate wintertime soil temperature, soil frost depth, and snow depth for a 14 year period in a high elevation area of Iran. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 119:47-60.
Mellander, P. E., Laudon, H., and Bishop, K.(2005). Modelling variability of snow depth sand soil temperatures in Scotspinestands. J. Agric. For. Meteorol. 133,109-118.
Mirmousavi, S., and Saboor, L. (2014). Monitoring of the snow cover variations using MODIS images in the North West of Iran. Iranian Journal of Geography and Development. 35. 181-200. (In Farsi)
Mowahhed Danesh. A. (1997). Introduction to Hydrology. Amidi Press. 420 pp. (In Farsi)
Najafi M.R., Sheikhvand J., and Porhemmat J. (2004). Evaluation of runoff made from snow melting in snowy basins using SRM method (case study of Mahabad Dam). Iranian Journal of agriculture and natural resources. 11(3), 111-121. (In Farsi)
Parajka, J., Dadson, S., Lafon, Th., and Essery, R. (2010). Evaluation of snow cover and depth simulated by a land surface model using detailed regional snow observations from Austria. Journal of Geophysical Research. 115, 1-17.
Pluss, C. G. (1997). The energy balance over an alpine snowcover point measurements and areal distrib ution. Dissertation ETH. No. 11641, ETH Zurich, Switzerland., p. 116.
Raeisian, R., and Porhemmat, J. (2014). Determining the degree-days factor and snow melt in Central Zagross, case study: Chery region. Iranian Journal of Watershed Management Science and Engineering. 6(2), 165-174. (In Farsi)
Randall, D. A. (2007). Climate models and their evaluation, in Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, pp. 589 –662, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, U. K.
Rohrer, M.B., Braun, L.N. (1994). Long-term records of snow cover water equivalent in the Swiss Alps. 2: Simulation. Nordic Hydrol. 25, 65-78.
Sand, K. (1990). Modeling snowmelt runoff processes in temperate and arctic environments. Norges Tekniske Hogskole Trondheim. Doktor Ingenioravhandling. 61, 176.
Stahli, M., Jansson, P. E. (1998). Test of two SVAT snow sub models during different winter conditions. Agric. Forest. Meteorol. 92, 29-41.
Sharifi, M. (2007). The studying of the Spatial Distribution of Snow Water Equivalent using synthetic methods. 2007. Ph.D. Thesis. Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. (In Farsi)
Sharifi, M. R., Akhondali, A. M., Porhemmat, J. and Mohammadi, J. (2007). Application of Cluster Analysis for Estimating Snow Depth (Case Study: Samsami Basin). Agricultural Research. 7(4): 25-37. (In Farsi)
Sturm, M., Taras, B., Litson, G., Derksen, Ch., Jonas, T., and Lea, J. (2010). Estimating Snow Water Equivalent Using Snow Depth Data and Climate Classes. Journal of Hydrometeorology. 11: 1380-1394.
Vehvilainen, B. (1992). Snow cover models in operational watershed forecasting. National Borad of Waters and Environment, Finland.
Xarpell, L.G., Koivusalo, H., Laurén, A., and Repo, T. (2010). Simulation of soil temperature and moisture under different snow and frost conditions with Coup model. Working Papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute 163.
Xu, S. (2011). Impact of cold climate on boreal ecosystem processes-exploring dataand model uncertainties. Doctoral Thesis in Land and Water Resources Engineering, KTH University, Stockholm, Sweden.