The study of clay and soil development that effected by drainage and land use on the Karoon River

Document Type : Research Paper


1 agriculture and natural resources university of Khuzestan

2 FormerM.Sc/Ramin agriculture and natural resources university of Khuzestan

3 Assistance professor/Ramin agriculture and natural resources university of Khuzestan


The aim followed in the present study was a determination of soil and clay mineral diversity in alluvial soils along Karoon River. For this, 14 profiles were described on the transect perpendicular to some eastern direction of Karoon River bank. These profiles were 1 Kilometer apart and belonged to different drainage conditions and land use. The results indicate that soil salinity increased, while OM is being decreased with increasing distance from Karoon River bank. This was related to drainage class changes. Ochric epipedon was diagnostic in all pedons. The subsurface horizons were restricted to cambic and salic horizons. The cambic horizon was formed due to wetting and drying either under irrigation or rain, due to which crack and cleavages were formed in subsoils. Also, salic horizons were formed under high saline water table. Chlorite, illite, kaolinite, vermiculite, smectite, and quartz were identified through XRD. Kaolinite, illite, chlorite, and quartz were inherited from parent material. Vermiculite was formed from illite simple transformation due to cultivation and K depletion in soil surface near the River bank. Also, smectite was formed on the surface of this pedon. These clay types were not seen in subsurface of these soils. Illite and chlorite intensity decreased in surface soil which was related to transformation to vermiculite and smectite. In spite of first pedon, the clay mineral was identified in subsurface soil. This clay mineral was the result of high pH, salinity, and Mg concentration in ground water. More study showed that this smectite is trioctahedral.


Main Subjects

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