Evaluation of Trends in Mineral Nutrition Uptake in Balangu (Lallemantia iberica) under Different Copper and Zinc Application Rates

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Graduate Student, University of Tehran, and PhD. Candidate, Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

2 Professor at Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

3 Associate Professor of Soil Science, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

4 Assistant Professor Department of Agriculture, Medicinal Plants and Drug Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, Tehran, Iran


Zink and copper are among the essential micronutrients needed by plants. They, on the other hand (when at extra high concentrations) can act as stress factors, limiting a plant's uptake of other nutrients, and conseqently stunting the plant's grwth. The aim followed in the present study was to investigate the effect of different concentrations of Cu and Zn on micronutrients (Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn) and on macronutrients' (P and K) uptake in Dragon’s Head plant with the soil in a state of Zn and Cu deficiency,suficcientcy or toxicity level. The treatments consisted of three levels of Cu (0, 5 and 25 mg/Kg obtained from CuSO4 source) and three levels of Zn (0, 10 and 50 mg/Kg obtained from a ZnSO4 source) plus across combination of the two. The study was carried out to the effect of different concentrations of Cu (zero, 5 and 25 mg per kg of soil) and Zn (zero, 10 and 50 mg per kg of soil) on the uptake of Cu, Zn, Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Potassium (K) and Phosphorus (P) within the roots and shoots of Balangu (Lallemantia iberica F. & CM). The results indicated that all the treatments positivly affected the uptake of ether Cu or Zn in roots, but in shoots, and when Cu and Zn at their low concentrations (5 and 10 mg per kg of soil, respectively) vs high concentrations (25 and 50 mg kg soil), had respectively positive vs negative effects on the uptake of these element.  The negative effect of high levels of Zn on Cu absorption was more pronounced than the similar levels of Cu on zinc absorption within plant's shoots. Porassium uptake by root and shoots increased in all the treatments except in those of high levels of Cu and Zn combined with the treatment of high levels of copper. These nutritional findings could be used as  useful alerts in controlled use of Cu and Zn in Balangu cultivation.


Main Subjects

  1. Alaoui-Sossé, B., Genet, P., Vinit-Dunand, F., Toussaint, M . L., Epron, D., Badot, P. M. (2004) Effect of copper on growth in cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) and its relationships with carbohydrate accumulation and changes in ion contents. Plant Science. 166: 1213-1218.
  2. Ali Ehyaei, M. and Behbahanizadeh, A. (1993) Methods of chemical analysis of soil, Vol.1, Publication No. 893. Soil and Water Research Institute. Tehran.
  3. Ali, N. A., Bernal, M. P. and Ater, M. (2002) Tolerance and bioaccumulation of copper in Phragmites australis and Zea mays. Plant and Soil. 239:103-111.
  4. Bernal, M., Cases, R., Picorel, R. and Yruela, I. (2007) Foliar and root Cu supply affect differently Fe-and Zn-uptake and photosynthetic activity in soybean plants. Environmental and experimental botany. 60:145-150.
  5. Bonnet, M., Camares, O. and Veisseire, P. )2000) Effects of zinc and influence of Acremonium lolii on growth parameters, chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activities of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) cv Apollo). Journal of Experimental Botany. 51(346):945-953.  
  6. Boorboori, M. R. and Tehrani, M. M. (2010). The effect interaction of amounts and Methods applications of copper and zinc on plant characteristics and grain protein of wheat. Crop physiology. 2 (8):29-44. (In Persian)
  7. Botanica, A. B. C. (2009) Micromorphological studies of (Lallemantia iberica L.) Lamiaceae species growing in Turkey. Acta Biologica Cracoviensia Series Botanica. 51(1): 45-54.
  8. Bouazizi, H., Jouili, H., Geitmann, A. and El- Ferjani, E. (2010) Copper toxicity in expanding leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. antioxidant enzyme response and nutrient element uptake. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety. 73:1304-1308.
  9. Emami, A. (1996) Methods of plant analysis Vol.1. Publication No. 982. Soil and Water Research Institute. Tehran.
  10. Ghorbanli, M. L. and Babalar, M. (2003) Mineral nutrition of Plnats. Tarbiat moallem University press, Tehran.
  11. Ishimaru, Y., Bashir, K., and Nishizawa, N.K  (2011) Zn uptake and translocation in rice plants. Rice, 4: 21-27.
  12. Jafari, F., Golchin, A. and Shafiei, S. (2014) The effects of nitrogen and foliar application of iron aminochelate on yield and growth indices of dill  (Anethum graveolans L.) medical plant. Jornal of science and technological greenhouse culture. 5(17): 1-12.
  13. Kabata-Pendias, A. (2001) Trace elements in soils and plants, CRC press, New York.
  14. Kopittke, P. M. and Menzies, N. W. (2006) Effect of Cu toxicity on growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Plant and Soil. 279: 287-296.
  15. Kováčik,  J., Klejdus,  B., Hedbavny,  J., Štork,  F. and Bačkor, M. (2009) Comparison of cadmium and copper effect on phenolic metabolism, mineral nutrients and stress-related parameters in Matricaria chamomilla plants. Plant and soil. 320: 231-242.
  16. Kovácik, J., Klejdus, B . I., Hedbavny,  J., Stork,  F. and Grúz, J.  (2012) Modulation of copper uptake and toxicity by abiotic stresses in Matricaria chamomilla plants. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 60: 6755-6763
  17. Malakouti, M. J., Keshavarz, P. and Karimian N. A (2008). Comprehensive Approach towards identification of nutrients deficiencies and optimal fertilization for sustainable agriculture. TarbiatModaress University press. (In Persian).
  18. Malekouti, M. J. and Tehrani, M. M (2005). Effects of micronutrients on the yield and quality of agricultural products (micro- nutrients with macro- effects). Tarbiat Modarres University press. Tehran. Iran. (In Persian)
  19. Marschner, H. (2011) Mineral nutrition of higher plants, Academic Press, New Yurk.
  20. Morteza-Semnani, K. (2006) Essential Oil Composition of Lallemantia iberica Fisch. CA Mey. Journal of Essential Oil Reserch.18:164-165.
  21. Nori-Shargh, D., Kiaei, S., Deyhimi, F., Mozaffarian, V. , Yahyaei, H. (2009) The volatile constituent’s analysis of Lallemantia iberica (MB) Fischer & Meyer from Iran. Natural Product Research. 23: 546-548.
  22. Omid Beygi, R. (2008) Production and processing of medicinal plants. Vol1. Astan ghods press.
  23. Ouzounidou, G. (1995) Responses of maize (Zea mays L.) plants to copper stress—I. Growth, mineral content and ultrastructure of roots. Environmental and experimental botany. 35(2):167-176.
  24. Overeem, A., Buisman, G. J., Derksen, J. T., Cuperus, F. P., Molhoek, L., Grisnich, W. and Goemans, C. (1999) Seed oils rich in linolenic acid as renewable feedstock for environment-friendly crosslinkers in powder coatings. Industrial crops and products. 10(3): 157-165.
  25. Pande, P., Anwar, M., Chand, S., Yadav, V .K. and Patra, D. (2007) Optimal level of iron and zinc in relation to its influence on herb yield and production of essential oil in menthol mint. Communication in soil science and plant analysis. 38:561-578.
  26. Rion, B. and Alloway, J. (2004) Fundamental aspects of Zinc in soils and plants. International Zinc.
  27. Rout, G. R. and Das, P. (2003) Effect of metal toxicity on plant growth and metabolism: I. Zinc. Agronomie. 23(1): 3-11.
  28. Ruhi Nogh, A. (2011). The effect of organic fertilizer and plant density on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of medicinal plants Balngu. MS.c Tesis .Faculty of Agricultural in Mashhad University. Iran. (In Farsi).
  29. Shabanzadeh, Sh., Ramroudi, M. and Galavi, M. (2012) Influence of Micronutrients Foliar Application on Seed Yield and Quality Traits of Black Cumin in Different Irrigation Regimes. Journal of Crop Production and Processing. 1(2): 79-89.
  30. Sheldon, A. and  Menzies, N. (2005) The effect of copper toxicity on the growth and root morphology of Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana Knuth.) in resin buffered solution culture. Plant and soil. 278(1): 341-349.
  31. Stoyanova, Z. and Doncheva, S. (2002) The effect of Zinc supply and succinate treatment on plant growth and mineral uptake in pea plant. Plant Physiology. 14 (2): 111-116.
  32. Talukder, K. H., Ahmed, A. U., Islam, M. S., Asaduzzaman, M. and Hossain, M .D . (2011) Incubation studies on exchangeable Zn for varying levels of added Zn under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in grey terrace soils, non calcarious floodplain soils and calcarious floodplain soils. Journal of science Foundation. 9: 2. 9-15.
  33. Zare Dehabadi, S., Asrar, Z. and Mehrabani, M. (2008) Effect of zinc on growth and some physiological and biochemical parameters of spearmint (Mentha spicata L.). Iranian Journal of Plant Biology, 20 (3): 230-241. (In Farsi).
  34. Zargari, A. (1997). Medicinal Plant. Vol. 4, Tehran University Press. (In Farsi).