Modeling and Simulation of Long-term Effects of Irrigation with Tehran Treated Wastewater on Water and Soil Resources using Dynamic Systems Modeling

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Professor, Irrigation and Recla. Eng. Dept. UNIVERSITY OF TEHRAN

2 PhD Student, Irrigation and Recla. Eng. Dept. UNIVERSITY OF TEHRAN

3 Assistant Professor, Irrigation and Recla. Eng. Dept Imam Khomeini International University


Many factors affect wastewater management and utilization plans’ success with any change occurring in any of these factors leading to various feedbacks on other elements of wastewater use system. Hence, development of a model with the capability of simulation of all factors, aspects and interactions that affect wastewater utilization indispensable. The objective followed in this study was to model and make simulation of long-term effects of irrigation with Tehran treated wastewater on the water and soil resources’ System Dynamics (SD) modeling method. The developed SD model validation process revealed that the model benefits from the needed acceptable efficiency. Nine possible scenarios in wastewater allocation, crop pattern as well as deficit irrigation were studied. Model results warned that the current condition if continued would lead to complete degradation of groundwater resources by 2042. Also, the results indicated that wastewater allocation can postpone the degradation of ground water resource (up to 2067). Wastewater allocation together with 11 % decrease in agricultural demand (through either deficit irrigation or modern irrigation systems’ development) can result in a sustainable use of water resources as in Varamin Area, Iran.


Main Subjects

Adeniran, A. E. and Bamiro, A. O. (2010). A System Dynamic Strategic Planning Model for a Municipal Water Supply Scheme, the International Conference of the System Dynamics Society.
Alizadeh, H. A., Nazari, B., Parsinejad, M., Ramazani, H., and Janbaz, H, R. (2011). Evaluation of aquaCrop model in the management of Deficit irrigation of Wheat in Karaj. Iranian Journal of Irrigation & Drainage. 2(4): 273-283. (in Farsi).
Allen, R. G., Pereira, L. S., Raes, D., and Smith, M. (1998). Crop evapotranspiration: Guidelines for computing crop water requirements. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 56, United Nations, FAO, Rome, Italy.
Amahmid, O., Asmama, S., and Bouhoum, K. (1999).The effect of wastewater reuse in irrigation on the contamination level of food crops by Giardia cysts and Ascaris eggs. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 49(1-2): 19-26.
Ayars, J. E., Hoffman, G. J., and Corwin, D. L. (2012). Leaching and root zone salinity control. In Agricultural Salinity Assessment and Management, 371-403. ASCE.
Bala, B. K., Satter, M. A., Halim, M. A., and Talukdar, M. S. U. (1988). Simulation of crop-irrigation systems. Agricultural systems, 27(1), 51-65.
Bedbabis, S., Rouina, B. B., and Boukhris, M. (2010). The effect of waste water irrigation on the extra virgin olive oil quality from the Tunisian cultivar Chemlali. Scientia horticulturae, 125(4), 556-561.
Behbehaninia, A. and Mirbagheri, S. A. (2011). Study of quality and characteristics of water resources for irrigation in agricultural sector in Varamin. 5th National Conference on Watershed Management and Soil and Water Resources Management. Kerman.
Bhatkoti, R. and Triantis, P. K. (2011). Quantitative Evaluation of the Performance of Water Management System in the Washington Metropolitan Area, The 29th International Conference of the System Dynamics Society. Washington, DC, 24 – 28 July.
Fernandez, J. M. and Selma, M. A. E. (2004). The dynamics of water scarcity on irrigated landscapes: Mazarron and Aguilas in south-eastern Spain. System Dynamics Review. , 20(2):117-137.Fletcher, E. J. 1998. The use of system dynamics as a decision support tool for the management of surface water resources. First International Conference on New Information Technologies for Decision Making in Civil Engineering, Montreal, Canada: 909-920.
Fresco, L. (2002). The future of agriculture: Challenges for environment, health and safety regulation of pesticides. Available at FAO, Rome.
Friedel, J. K., Langer, T., Siebe, C., and Stahr, K. (2000). Effects of long-term waste water irrigation on soil organic matter, soil microbial biomass and its activities in central Mexico. Biol Fertil Soils. 31:414–421.
Gaffari, A., Montazar, A. A., and Rahimi Jamnani, A. (2011). Development of ano cropping pattern model using analytical hierarchy process (Case Study: Varamin Irrigation Network). Journal of Water and Soil. 24(6): 1119-1128. ( in Farsi).
Gastelum, J. R., Valdes, J. B., and Stewart, S. (2010). A System Dynamics Model to Evaluate Temporary Water Transfers in the Mexican Conchos Basin. Water Resources Management . 24: 1285-1311.
Giordano1, R., Brugnach, M., and Vurro, M. (2012). System Dynamic Modelling for conflicts analysis in groundwater management. International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software Managing Resources of a Limited Planet, Sixth Biennial Meeting, Leipzig, Germany.
Goldani, M., Amadeh, H., and Zamanipour, M. (2011). A System Dynamics Approach in Water Resource Management and Government Subsidy Policy: A Case Study of Tajan Basin in Tran, the 29th International Conference of the System Dynamics Society. Washington, DC, 24 – 28 July.
Hanjra, M. A., Blackwell, J., Carr, G., Zhang, F., and Jackson, T. M. (2012). Wastewater irrigation and environmental health: Implications for water governance and public policy. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 215: 255–269.
Hjorth, P. and Bagheri, A. (2006). Navigating Towards Sustainable Development: A System Dynamics Approach. Futures, 38 (1): 74-92.
Hussain, I., Raschid, L., Hanjra, M. A., Marikar, F., and van der Hoek, W. (2002). Wastewater use in agriculture: Review of impacts and methodological issues in valuing impacts. (With an extended list of bibliographical references). Working Paper 37. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute.
Li, Y. P. and Huang, G. H. (2012). A recourse-based nonlinear programming model for stream water quality management. Stoch Environ Res Risk Assess 26:207–223.
Li, Y. P., Huang, G. H., and Chen, X. (2009). Multistage scenario-based intervalstochastic programming for planning water resources allocation. Stoch Environ Res Risk Assess, 23:781–792.
Luo, Y., Khan, S., Cui, Y., and Peng, Sh. (2009). Application of system dynamics approach for time varying water balance in aerobic paddy fields. Paddy Water Environ. 7:1–9.McGraw-Hill, New York.
Masike, S. (2011). Application of system dynamic approach for water planning and decision making under water scarcity at Jwaneng diamond mine. Journal of Geography and Regional Planning. 4(5): 251-260.
Mekala, G. D. (2009). A Framework for Determining and Establishing the Factors that affect Wastewater Treatment and Recycling. PhD thesis, University of Melbourne.
Mesdaghinia, A., Hamedian, A., and Rahmani, K. (2011). Evaluation of oerformance Wastewater Treatment plants in Tehran, Iran. Research Journal of Biological Sciences. 6(1): 30-32.
Nasiri, F., Savage, T., Wang, R., Barawid, N., and Zimmerman, J. B. (2013). A system dynamics approach for urban water reuse planning: a case study from the Great Lakes region. Journal of Stoch Environ Res Risk Assess. 27:675–691
Nozari, H., Liaghat, A. M., and Kholghi, M. (2008). Simulation of Drainage Systems in Unsteady State Condition, Using System Dynamics. The 27th International Conference of the System Dynamics Society.
Rehan, R., Knight, M. A, Haas, C. T., and Unger, A. J. A. (2011). Application of system dynamics for developing financially self-sustaining management policies for water and wastewater systems. Water research 45: 4737 -4750.
Saysel A. K., Barlas, Y., and Yenigun, O. (2002). Environmental sustainability in an agricultural development project: a system dynamics approach. Journal of Environmental Management, 64: 247–260.
Saysel, A. and Barlas, Y. (2006). Model simplification and validation with indirect structure validity tests. System Dynamics Review, 22(3): 241–262.
Solis, C., Isaac-Olive, K., Mireles, A., and Vidal-Hernandez, M. (2009). Determination of trace metals in cow's milk from waste water irrigated areas in Central Mexico by chemical treatment coupled to PIXE. Microchemical Journal, 91(1): 9-12.
Sterman, J. D. (2000). Business dynamics – systems thinking and modeling for a complex world. Irvin.
Sun, Q., Krobel, R., Muller, T., Romheld, V., Cui, Z., Zhang, F., and Chen, X. (2011). Optimization of yield and water-use of different cropping systems for sustainable groundwater use in North China Plain. Agricultural water management, 98(5), 808-814.
Udono, K. and Sitte, R. (2008). Modeling seawater desalination powered by waste incineration using a dynamic systems approach. Journal of Desalination. 229:302–317.
Van Rensburg, L. D., Strydom, M. G., Du Preez, C. C., Bennie, A. P. T., Le Roux, P. A. L., and Pretorius, J. P. (2008). Prediction of salt balances in irrigated soils along the lower Vaal River, South Africa. Journal of Water SA, 34(1): 11-19.
Water Research Institute (2010). Updating studies of water balance in Daryache-Namak watershed. Volume 5, 162.
Yargholi, B., Azimi, A. A., Baghvand, A., Abasi, F., Liaghat, A. M., and Asadollah Fardi, G. (2009). Investigation of Cd Adsorption and Accumulation from Contaminated Soil in Different Parts of Root Crops . Journal of Water & Wastewater. 20(72): 60-70. ( in farsi).
Zarghami, M. and Akbariyeh, S. (2012). System dynamics modeling for complex urban water systems: application to the city of Tabriz, Iran. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 60, 99-106.