کانی‌شناسی خاک‌های درجا توسعه یافته از هوازدگی بازالت در یک ردیف اقلیمی خشک-نیمه‌خشک-نیمه‌مرطوب البرز میانی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران-کرج

2 استاد گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران-کرج

چکیده

بازالت­ها از جمله سنگ‌های آذرین حاوی کانی‌های حساس به هوازدگی هستند که محصولات هوازدگی آنها به­صورت کانی‌های ثانویه و مواد محلول مختلف در آمده و خصوصیات کانی­شناسی ویژه­ای ایجاد می­کنند که به ندرت در سایر خاک‌ها یافت می­شوند. کانی‌های رسی بخش مهمی از سیستم خاک را تشکیل می­دهند و در حاصلخیزی، مدیریت و بهره وری پایدار خاک نقش دارند. هدف از این مطالعه بررسی تشکیل کانی‌های رسی در خاک‌های درجا تشکیل یافته از بازالت در سه اقلیم مختلف است. در این تحقیق ویژگی­های فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک‌های تشکیل شده بر روی سنگ مادر بازالت در 24 خاکرخ در یک ردیف اقلیمی در سه منطقه خشک، نیمه­خشک و نیمه مرطوب البرز میانی مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت و سپس خصوصیات کانی شناسی در شش خاکرخ مطالعه شد. تحلیل پراش­نگاشت­های اشعه X نشان داد که در خاک‌های مناطق خشک ایلایت و در مناطق نیمه­خشک و نیمه­مرطوب اسمکتایت کانی‌های غالب هستند. فرایندهای نوتشکیلی (رسوب از محلول) و تغییر شکل کانی‌ها (به ویژه ایلایت) در تشکیل اسمکتایت خاک­ساخت در مناطق نیمه­خشک و نیمه­مرطوب نقش دارند. در خصوص ایلایت نیز، شواهد گویای منشا پدوژنیک آن در خاک‌های مورد مطالعه می­باشد. منشا ورمی­کولایت در سه منطقه مورد مطالعه نیز تحت تاثیر هوادیدگی میکا و کلرایت بوده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Mineralogy of In Situ Soils Developed from Basalt Weathering in an Arid-Semiarid-Semihumid Climosequence of Middle Alborz

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Raheb 1
  • Ahmad Heidari 2
1 Assistant Professor, soil science department, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
2 (Professor, soil science department Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran)
چکیده [English]

Basalt is among igneous rocks that contains susceptible minerals to weathering minerals, and their weathering products are deposited as secondary minerals and different cations in the soil. Soils derived from basalt bedrock have many distinctive properties that are rarely found in other soils. Clay minerals constitute an important component of the soil system, and knowledge of their role in soil fertility is imperative for sustainable soil management and productivity. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to evaluate clay minerals formation of in situ soil derived from basalt in three different climate conditions. In the present study, physicochemical properties of 24 soil profiles, which formed on basalt rocks, were investigated in the arid, semi-arid, and semi-humid regions of middle Alborz and also mineralogical properties were studied in 6 profiles. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that illite and smectite were the dominant minerals in the arid and semi-arid soils, respectively. Results revealed that the neosynthesis mechanism and deformation process of other minerals (especially illite) confirm the pedogenic formation of smectite soils in semi-arid regions. Evidence suggested that the illite in the studied soils had a pedogenic origin. Also, the vermiculite origin was to affected by the weathering of mica and chlorite within the three study areas.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • smectite
  • X-ray diffraction
  • Pedon
  • Igneous rocks
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